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P-value%20notes - The"Learning Curve 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

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0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S1 S2 S5 S3 S4 AVERAGE SESSIO N Time to reach goal (seconds) The “Learning Curve”
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Group Designs: Significance Testing Take a sample of the population and test it on some measure. Based on your findings, extrapolate to the population. So, you test a small sample to learn something about the population level effect.
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Group Designs EXAMPLE: Does a new teaching method improve reading scores? You have two groups of 20 preschoolers each. The Blue Group learns according to a new teaching method, and The Yellow Group learns according to the standard method. Ho: Any difference between the groups is due to chance. (There is zero “true” difference between the groups at the population level.) Ha: There is a difference between the two methods in terms of making kids learn to read faster. The Null Hypothesis
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p<.05 (Then some stats magic happens involving the differences between your data points and the number of data points you have, yielding a “p-value”) This p-value is the ESSENCE of most psychological testing, especially group designs
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p<.05 By convention, if p<.05, then you have “an effect.” Using a smaller convention, say .01, is a more rigorous test.
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