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ch7short[1] - Chapter 7 tro Chemical equations and...

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Chapter 7 tro Chemical equations and reactions
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Oxyhydrocarbon 1 (from last week) One mole of C 3 H 6 O 5 is burned in O 2 . How many moles of CO 2 are formed? (3) How many moles of H 2 O are formed? (3) How many moles of O 2 are consumed?(2) Safest approach is to use mole to mole conversion factors. For example, O H moles 3 ) ( ) ( O H C mole 1 2 H moles 2 O H mole 1 O H C mole H moles 6 5 6 3 2 5 6 3 = × × 2 C mole CO mole 1 O H C mole C moles 3 5 6 3 CO moles 3 ) ( ) ( O H C mole 1 2 5 6 3 = × ×
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The balanced chemical equation Last week we learned that, when burned, one mole of C 3 H 6 O 5 produced 3 moles each of CO 2 and H 2 O and consumed 2 moles of O 2 . These results can be summarized in the balanced chemical equation . C 3 H 6 O 5 +2 O 2 3 CO 2 +3 H 2 O The coefficients are the smallest integers that lead to the conservation of each atom. The total number of oxygen atoms on the left must be exactly the same as the number on the right. The same is true for hydrogen and carbon.
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The Combustion of Methane methane gas burns to produce carbon dioxide gas and gaseous water whenever something burns it combines with O 2 (g)
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Combustion of Methane methane gas burns to produce carbon dioxide gas and gaseous water whenever something burns it combines with O 2 (g) CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) H H C H H O O + O O C + O H H 1 C + 4 H + 2 O 1 C + 2 O + 2 H + O 1 C + 2 H + 3 O
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Combustion of Methane Balanced to show the reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Mass it must be balanced CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(g) H H C H H + O O C + O O O O + O H H O H H + 1 C + 4 H + 4 O 1 C + 4 H + 4 O
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Why do reactions occur? Governed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Example: Take 4 H atoms and 2 O atoms separated from one another. Let them go. They will almost always form two water molecules. Only very rarely will they form two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule. It is a statistical kind of thing. Often, but not always, heat is liberated. (Hindenberg) But reactions can be reversed (drop battery into salt water).
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Phase Change Reactions Many reactions involve phase changes such as generating gas or solid or even a
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