Exam4StudyGuide - Chapter 13 Social Perception Social...

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Chapter 13 Social Perception Social Psychology Social Cognition examines how we process information about the social world, ourselves and others Social Influence examines how people influence other’s behaviour, judgments, etc. Social Cognition How we process information about the social world Information overload: How do we cope? Why do we attend to some stimuli and not others? Generating Impressions of People The Schema “Mental Image” of a person Different schemas for different people A schema for ourself Help us to organize the world Incongruent Information and Schemas What happens when we encounter information that violates our schemas? 1. Assimilation: fitting incongruent information into an existing schema by shaping or distorting the information so that it seems consistent with the original schema. Incongruent Information and Schemas What happens when we encounter information that violates our schemas? 2. Accommodation: changing schemas through complete revision or by making them more complex in order to fit incongruent information. Incongruent Information and Schemas What happens when we encounter information that violates our schemas? Assimilation more likely Our schemas are resistant to change The Case of Hugh Grant Naïve English Guy Caught with Prostitute The Case of Hugh Grant Assimilation The prostitute lied to become famous
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He was set up Accommodation Even famous people do bad things He is a bad person Attributions for Behavior Attribution: the process of explaining the causes of our own and other people’s behavior Behavior can be attributed to: Internal factors : dispositions, traits, abilities or feelings External factors : situational demands Deciding Where to Attribute Someone’s Behavior Kelley’s Logical Model See a person’s behavior and ask: 1. Does the person always behave this way? Yes: Internal Attribution No: External Attribution 2. Do other people behave this way in similar situations? Yes: External Attribution No: Internal Attribution Deciding Where to Attribute Someone’s Behavior Kelley’s Logical Model See a person’s behavior and ask: 3. Does the person behave this way most of the time? Yes: Internal Attribution No: External Attribution But, often we don’t have enough info to be logical Errors in Attribution We often have to rely on guess-work when attributing behavior to different causes Fundamental Attribution Error or Person Bias the tendency to underestimate external causes and overestimate internal causes e.g. police officers might be assumed to be aggressive (an internal attribution) Actor-Observer Discrepancy the tendency to attribute one’s own behavior to external causes and other's to internal causes Defensive Attributions the tendency to blame victims for their misfortunes related to the “just world” bias
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Exam4StudyGuide - Chapter 13 Social Perception Social...

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