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Biology 1105 Exam 1

# Biology 1105 Exam 1 - Biology 1105 Exam#1 Exercise 2...

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Biology 1105 Exam #1 Exercise 2: Measurements in Biology Metric system – used by scientists throughout the world to make measurements Also used everywhere in everyday life except in the US -where most of the measurements are the antiquated English system of pounds, inches, feet, etc- Based on units of 10, unlike the English system Conversions 1 inch = 2.5 centimeters 1 foot = 30 centimeters 1 yard = 0.9 meter 1 mile = 1.6 kilometers 1 ounce = 28 grams 1 pound = 0.45 kilograms 1 fluid ounce = 30 milliliters 1 pint = 0.47 liter 1 quart = 0.95 liter 1 gallon = 3.8 liters Metric Units: meter (m) – basic unit of length liter (L) – the basic unit of volume kilogram (kg) – the basic unit of mass degree Celsius ( 0 C) – the basic unit of temperature Units of are indicated by Latin/Greek prefixes before the base units: Prefix (Latin) Division of Metric Unit Deci (d) 0.1 10 ^-1 Centi (c) 0.01 10^-2 Milli (m) 0.001 10^-3 Micro (u) 0.000001 10^-6 Nano (n) 0.000000001 10^-9 Pico (p) 0.000000000001 10^-12 Prefix (Greek) Multiple of Metric Unit Deka (da) 10 10^1 Hecto (h) 100 10^2 Kilo (k) 1000 10^3 Mega (M) 1000000 10^6 Giga (G) 1000000000 10^9 K | H | D | *(m,l,g) | D | C | M

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Meter (m) – basic unit of length Units of area are squared units of length: o 1m = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 0.001 km = 1 X 10 -3 km o I cm 2 = 100 mm 2 Most biologists measure lengths with metric rulers or metersticks Volume – the space occupied by an object Units of volume are cubed (3-D) units of length The liter (L) is the basic unit of volume o 1 L = 1000 cm 3 = 1000 mL a PIPET is used to extract and dispense volumes of liquid used to measure small volumes (25 mL or less) liquid is drawn into a pipet using a bulb o pipet pump GRADUATED CYLINDERS are used to measure larger volumes meniscus – the interface i.e. between water and air; curved because of surface tension and the adhesion of water to the sides of the cylinder o when measuring liquid, position our eyes level w/ meniscus and read volume at lowest level Kilogram (kg) – the basic unit of mass a kg = the mass of one thousand cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) of water at 4 0 C Biologists often measure mass with a TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE 3 beams o closest beam has 0.1-g graduations o middle beam has 100-g graduations o farthest beam has 10-g graduations the mass of the object is the sum of the masses indicated by the weights on the 3 beams Density – mass per unit volume density of water = mass/volume = about 1 Temperature – measure of how kinetic energy of molecules; the amount of heat in a system measured with a thermometer calibrated in degrees Celsius Celsius scale is based on water freezing at 0 0 C and boiling at 100 0 C Can interconvert o C and degrees Fahrenheit ( o F) using the formula o 5( o F) = 9( o C) + 160
Numerical Data: Statistics - offer a way to organize, summarize, and describe data the data are usually samples of information from a much larger population of values allow us to analyze the sample and draw inferences about the entire population make decisions without complete data about a population

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Biology 1105 Exam 1 - Biology 1105 Exam#1 Exercise 2...

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