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Socb118 Midterm 1 Reading Notes

Socb118 Midterm 1 Reading Notes - Week 1 Reading Notes...

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Week 1 Reading Notes Continued Wed. R: "Nuts and Bolts" by Kate Bornstein Kate Bornstein underwent a sex change and discusses her personal experience with the process. She notes how she takes hormones and underwent a surgery converting her penis to a vagina. She says she can experience an orgasm and feels symptoms attached to menstrual cycles. R: "Bio-Rhetoric, Background Beliefs and the Biology of Homosexuality" by Robert Alan Brookey Hamer reported that he found a chromosome that relates to male homosexuality. The significance of this finding is that if homosexuality is indeed genetic, then gay advocates could use this proof to justify fair treatment since their sexuality isn't chosen. These advocates hope to extend homosexuals the constitutional protection of the 14th amendment. The problem of this argument is that lesbians where never included as subjects in this research. Additionally, Hamer even said that lesbianism isn't genetic. pp 0063 Bio-rhetoric: a systematic strategy for mediating between the life sciences and social life, according to Lyne. Basically how science meshes with political debates. pp 0064 Longino: The ability of a scientific discourse to mesh with the political and social discourses is, in some cases, contingent on the presence of background beliefs.---- > The way scientific evidence may be used to dictate policy may be constrained by cultural beliefs reproduced by scientific studies in question. pp 0064 Levay: Found that a region of the hypothalamus was similar in gay men and woman. Concluded that this justified the similarity in the sexual behavior. Neuroendocrinological research suggests that a "female" gene may produce a feminized body.---> The difference in the sexes' hormonal cycles can be attributed to sexual dimorphism of the brain. Groups of homosexuals, bisexuals and heterosexuals where tested for estrogen feedback. The results for homosexual males varied from the rest, this suggested that homosexuals are neural distinct from heterosexual and bi-sexual males. ----> Homosexual men react to estrogen in the same manner as ovulating women. The problem with this study is that it couldn't explain bisexual males since their LH levels where similar to heterosexuals. pp 0067 In a way woman are blamed for homosexuality in offsprings. They either pass on the gay gene or influence them during their upbringing. This illustrates how well the background belief in male homosexuality effeminacy can compensate for a lack of scientific data. Deviation from per scribed gender roles signifies a deviation from biological sex. This sense of feminine abnormality is reinforced in the gay gene discourse when male homosexuality is imagined to be the abnormal feminization of the male body. It is believed that since femininity is represented as a threat to the normal masculinity, homosexuality is inflicted on men by women. pp 0070
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R: "Genital Mutilation Happens Here, Too" Children born with intersex conditions have been "treated" with normalizing
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Socb118 Midterm 1 Reading Notes - Week 1 Reading Notes...

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