Overview of Midterm 2 - Study Guide - Segregation of Race in Schools(Kozol Marshall state obligation to promote education as a key element of social

Overview of Midterm 2 - Study Guide - Segregation of Race...

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Unformatted text preview: Segregation of Race in Schools (Kozol) • Marshall – state obligation to promote education as a key element of social citizenship in contemporary society • Weber – status group competition over key social resources • Competition based not on Marx’s classes (e.e. ownership) but on wealth and race ethnicity • Kozol: 1. Reformer, advocate; Participant observer; No pretense to objectivity 2. Brings personal knowledge and moral passion to his writing -­‐ mentions statistics but his case against injustice is based on observations (his interactions with children in school) 3. Sees no fundamental difference between de jure (concerning law) and de facto (concerning fact) school segregation 4. Had hoped that there would be change during the late 60s and 70s by Regan’s election helps to stymie any serious discussion of problems of the inner city, let alone serious school reforms or efforts at integration 5. Dishonoring the dead: schools named after Martin Luther King are often in very poor neighborhoods and almost completely desegregated 6. Lessons from reform: Kozol argues diversity is value in itself Broken Window Theory of Crime, Disorderliness and Social Control in Neighborhoods (Wilson) Broken Windows • If window is broken and fixed quickly, everyone has a sense that order is maintained in a neighborhood • If window is broken and left unrepaired, this creates the sense that one broken window can led to: o Lots of windows being broken à bottles left on the street à drug deals openly conducted • Role of Police – Order Maintaining Policing (OMP) o Debate on: what role this plays in reducing crime? whether this leads to harassment of minorities and racial profiling Why Do People Commit Crimes: • Poverty and Inequality • James Q. Wilson -­‐ • T.H. Marshall – inadequate/incomplete social citizenship • Weber – status group competition between gangs • Marx – capitalists instills hunger for goods but deniers some people access • Merton – blocked opportunity • Durkheim – inadequate social integration Educational Disparities (Karen and Dougherty vs Kozol) Reforming Education • Elementary and Secondary: No Child Left Behind, Charter Schools • Higher Education: MOOCs Education and Major Theorists • Karen and Dougherty – dispassionate statistical analysis • Kozol – passionate, intimate advocacy • Durkheim – education essential for promoting social norms • Weber – education is becoming a key source of social stratification • Marshall – education is a basic social right in the era of social citizenship • Marx – education systems reflects capitalists’ needs • Durkheim would worry about loss of common socialization (Charter Schools) Warranting Governmental Action • Market failure, public goods, coordination, infrastructure, where to put parks, education, open • • • space? Social cohesion? Promoting social ties? T.H. Marshall – where is the line between the government and the rest of society Charles Schultze – encourage individuals to act on their own instead of having government require certain actions (less intrusive and more effective) à setting ground rules in terms of financial and other incentives for people to behave in ways that promote social good Insurance for high cost but low probability events – unemployment to defuse social costs of business cycle – reduces appeal of Marxian revolution Social Entrepreneurship as a Solution to Social Problems (Bornstein) • David Bornstein – If capitalism is about individuals marshaling their entrepreneurial spirit in the pursuit of profit, can we harness then same spirit in the pursuit of solutions to social problems? o Journalist, not an academic o Does not focus on developing analytic distinction o Goal is to inspire by example o Socioloigists study how ideas influence people (ex. Durkheim) but ignore (or downplays) incredibly determined people who persist despite all obstacles • Joseph Schumpeter – focused on entrepreneurs as the heroes (in contrast, Keynes was a technocrat focused on the getting the flow of money right to keep the economy moving forward) • Best – Schumpter has identified a class of heroes; business journalism is filled with stories of the heroic entrepreneur, or the turn-­‐around artist who takes a failing company and quickly restores it to profitability and growth o Best’s Claimsmakers as Social Entrepreneurs § People identifying a new social problem in this sense can be viewed as behaving similar to other entrepreneurs § Identifying a political market opportunity like identifying a market opportunity § Marshaling political resources like marshaling staff in a company • Weber – people follow entrepreneur where no one has gone before • J.B. Schramm – talented, disadvantaged and minority kids not getting into colleges for lots of trial and mundane reasons à recruited writing coach and “youth motivator” à replicated and by 2003, 5000 students has passed through program, 95% minorities, 79% enrolled in college (rate matches highest 20% earners) People + Main Concern: Best -­‐ framing T.H. Marshall – equality in the realm of citizenship can coexist with inequality in the real of economic life; liberal democracy allows for accommodation of class struggle through social reforms Weber – problem for modern society was not class conflict, but size, complexity and diversity Marx – economic inequality is the central problem in modern society Durkheim – richer, broader and more varied perspective on modern society that incorporates economics, politics, culture and social institutions Morton Kozol – segregation James Q. Wilson – broken window Karen and Dougherty – educational disparities Charles Schultze – encourage individuals for public use (public use of private interest) Bornstein – social entrepreneurship Joseph Schumpeter – entrepreneurs as heroes J.B. Schramm – disadvantaged access to college People + General Beliefs: Best -­‐ framing T.H. Marshall – equality in the realm of citizenship (3 types) can coexist with inequality in the real of economic life; liberal democracy allows for accommodation of class struggle through social reforms Weber – culture and individuals; richer, broader and more varied perspective that incorporates economics, politics, culture and social institutions (modern society); religion as a core force of society; occupational status groups tie people to society Marx – economic inequality is the central problem in modern society; exploiting man; powerful theory focused on a central issue in modern society, namely economic conflict Durkheim -­‐ whether they was enough glue, whether there were strong enough bonds to hold large and diverse societies together; social order exists over and above the individual; significance of religion is in the way it ties people to the community (norms, rituals, and sacred symbols are real – not God); society focused on purely material concerns was difficult if not impossible to imagine; links broad structures of modern societies to social processes like crime and suicide, and to institutions such as religion and professional associations Morton Kozol – brings personal knowledge and moral passion to his writing; mentions statistics but his case against injustice is based on his observations James Q. Wilson – poverty and inequality Karen and Dougherty – dispassionate statistical analysis Charles Schultze – individualized approaches Joseph Schumpeter – capitalism is about process of creative destruction J.B. Schramm – helping others? General Problems: Segregation Marshall – education should be a right for all people, there shouldn’t be different schools or systems; more sense of citizenship to fix the problem, they don’t have full legal, political, or social rites, need more rights and laws for them and equality Weber – Marx – capitalism and class differences; is inadequate social citizenship, people don’t feel connected so they don’t care about taking others’ things, there aren’t enough rules and regulations, no sense of citizenship or stake in society Durkheim – Kozol – Wilson – Karen and Dougherty – Schultze – Schumpter – Schramm – Crime, Disorderliness and Social Control Marshall – inadequate social citizenship, people don’t feel connected so they don’t care about taking others’ things, there aren’t enough rules and regulations, no sense of citizenship or stake in society Weber – status group competition between gangs Marx – capitalists instills hunger for goods but deniers some people access; capitalists are only interested in making money and in the short-­‐term consequences, they aren’t thinking about the long term and society as a whole; it is capitalisms fault, capitalism instills hunger for goods and then denies some people (lower classes) access to them, thus it drives people to commit crimes Durkheim – inadequate social integration; can be useful (functional) because the punishment helps remind group of norms; too much crime is dysfunctional; rituals reinforce social order Kozol – Wilson – Karen and Dougherty – Schultze – Schumpter – Schramm – Educational Disparities Marshall – education is a basic social right in the era of social citizenship Weber – education is becoming a key source of social stratification Marx – education systems reflects capitalists’ needs; exists because owners put more money into education, while lowers cant afford to Durkheim – education essential for promoting social norms Kozol – Wilson – Karen and Dougherty – Schultze – Schumpter – Schramm – General Social Problems (Insurance, Trash Collection?, Charity) Marshall – Weber – Marx – Durkheim – Kozol – Wilson – Karen and Dougherty – Schultze – Schumpter – Schramm – Solutions to Social Problems (Government, Private, Public/Private, Consequences) Marshall – no sense of citizenship, and to fix it create welfare state and create programs to give people what they need Weber – Marx – Durkheim – Kozol – Wilson – Karen and Dougherty – Schultze – Schumpter – Schramm – Social Entrepreneurship as a Solution (Political – frame extension; Moral – charities and philanthropies, Organizational – new approach) Best – business journalism is filled with stories of the heroic entrepreneur, or the turn-­‐around artist who takes a failing company and quickly restores it to profitability and growth Marshall – Weber – resonates with his charismatic authority – people follow entrepreneur where no one has gone before Marx – Durkheim – Kozol – Wilson – Karen and Dougherty – Schultze – Schumpter – Schramm – Modern Society Marx – focused on a central issue in modern society, namely economic conflict • Social conflict – exclusively class-­‐centered to predict the shape of things Weber – richer, broader and more varied perspective that incorporates economics, politics, culture and social institutions; religion as core force in society • Social conflict – only in rare cases societies are polarized into opposing "haves" and "have-­‐nots" Durkheim – whether they was enough glue, whether there were strong enough bonds to hold large and diverse societies together; problem was size, complexity and diversity (not class conflict); links broad structures of modern societies to social processes like crime and suicide, and to institutions such as religion and professional associations Communal Action Marx – happens when class becomes aware of its interests and relations to other classes Weber – emerge when causes and consequences of the situation become transparent Durkheim -­‐ significance of religion is in the way it ties people to the community Classes Marx – just classes Weber – status group (communities of people with similar interests, morals, etc; only occur when others see/put them together in that way) • Professions: occupational status groups pursing economic interested would tie individuals to society Durkheim – didn’t see class conflict as a problem in society à bonds not strong enough • Professions: occupational groups would also function as social organizations; hope that professions could serve as an institution that tie individuals to the broader society Power Marx – dogmatic emphasis on idea that power comes from one specific source Weber – questions where power comes from ...
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