4_Genetics.Learning_08

4_Genetics.Learning_08 - Genetic Basis of Behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: Genetic Basis of Behavior Evolution and Natural Selection Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Darwins Theory of Natural Selection 1. All living species arrived at their present biological structures through a historical process involving random inheritable changes 2. Those changes that enhanced an organisms ability to survive and reproduce were passed along in increasing numbers from generation to generation 3. Those changes that hindered survival and reproduction were lost over generations How are changes passed from generation to generation? Darwin did not know the mechanism 20 th century discovery - DNA and genes Genes are the biological units of heredity Genes: What are they? Genes biochemical units of heredity Replicated and passed on to offspring To the degree that a characteristic is inherited, it is inherited through genes Dont control behavior directly Affect behavior through their role in building and modifying the physical structures of the body. These structures, interacting with the environment, produce behavior [E.g., Musical ability] Genes: How do they affect behavior? Genotype : The set of genes that an individual inherits Phenotype : Observable properties of the body and behavioral traits Genes: How do they affect behavior? Phenotypes Tongue rolling Widows Peak Lobed ears vs free hanging ears These are traits controlled by single genes Cells and DNA Genes: Where are they? Humans --> 30,000 genes Worms --> ~ 20,000 genes Wheat --> ~ 100,000 genes Each parent contributes 1/2 of each of the childs 23 pairs of chromosomes Genes: Where do they come from? Gene Loci on Chromosome Pair Homozygous: the paired genes are identical (e.g., 1,3,5) Heterozygous: the paired genes are different (e.g., 2, 4) Allele: different genes that can occupy the same location and potentially pair with each other. Gene Loci on Chromosome Pair If both alleles are identical then the trait will be expressed....
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Nosek during the Spring '07 term at UVA.

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4_Genetics.Learning_08 - Genetic Basis of Behavior...

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