Exam2-PG - 1. Which sex increases in gender flexibility...

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1. Which sex increases in gender flexibility during adolescence? p.148: "Children’s personal gender role orientation may increase or decrease in flexibility in middle childhood and adolescence, depending on several factors. Girls tend to be more flexible than boys in their preferences for engaging in gender-typical or gender-atypical behavior as well as in their standards for the behavior in others. In both boys and girls, flexibility of gender roles for both themselves and others increases from middle childhood to adolescence, perhaps because of the change in perceived flexibility of the child’s social environment. .. In general, the degree of gender role flexibility exhibited by children and adolescents represents complex developmental and socialization processes." 2. Fagot, Leinbeck and Oboyle in their study, what did they find regarding mothers who did gender type play activity (ie. “Hi son, here’s a gun. My cute little daughter, here’s a doll”)? p.150: ". ..toddlers and preschoolers who demonstrated a more pronounced tendency to discriminate nonhuman items (animals and objects) in gender-stereotyped ways generally had mothers who initiated gender-typical play more often, responded positively to their children’s gender-typed play, and initiated less other-gender play. In general, these mothers expressed more traditional attitudes concerning appropriate behavior for women and traditional gender roles within the family and rated their own personality as containing fewer other-gender traits. This factor may be partially responsible for determining a child’s attitude toward gender and toward members of either gender who engage in cross-gender behavior." 3. How do parents contribute to gender differences in children? Main parts p.151-156, summary from p. 168: “Parenting plays a significant role in gender childhood socialization. In general, parents tend to foster boys’ autonomy and girls’ dependence. Single-parent homes have their own set of ramifications for children’s gender role attitudes, however. Fathers tend to reinforce gender-typed behavior more than mothers do, so the absence of the father can result in more androgynous behavior. Children living with their fathers tend to have a more balanced experience in terms of male and female adult figures. Even in intact marriages, mothers and father parent differently.” 4. How is sexism apparent in the English language regarding women? p.156-157 “In addition to separating women and men, the English language strongly favors men, affording them greater power over women. ..takes on one of three distinct forms, either ignoring women, defining women, or depreciating women.” Ignoring: “extending male terms to refer to humans as a whole - man/mankind”; “. ..he as a generic pronoun.” Defining: “. ..so-
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and-so’s wife, widow or daughter.”; “. ..women giving up their surnames for their husbands’ names.” Depreciates women: “Misogyny is pervasive in classical literature.”; “.
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Exam2-PG - 1. Which sex increases in gender flexibility...

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