Quashed extremism, political reform/dissent, social reform Focused on stability over everything else ○ --Starting @ 2 minutes-- Son took over □ King Hussein (Leader of Jordan for 47 years died 1999) Muammar Gaddafi - Insane leader of Libya for 42 years Mohammed Magarief: new pre. until elections in October 2015 "elected to power" in a one party state □ Hosni Mubarak - Egypt Leader for 30 years (former) "elected" by military overthrow of democracy □ Abdel Fattah el-Sisi - Egypt Leader (current) Hafez al-Assad: Syrian president 30 years Took power in 2000 □ Bashar al-Assad: Syrian President (current) Saddam Hussein: Iraq President for ~25 years Leaders of the "Past Generation" ○ All of these leaders quashed any resistance, extremism, political expression ○ They resisted any form of change (King Abdullah aside) ○ Yemen, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan □ Syrian civil war, Collapse of Iraq, Rise of ISIS □ Arab Spring was the result of this growth of dissent This has led to Latent Dissent all across the Middle East ○
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- Fall '13
- Saudi Arabia