12MemPt2

12MemPt2 - Memory part 2 Overview I. Memory: The Basic...

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Unformatted text preview: Memory part 2 Overview I. Memory: The Basic Problems I. Some causes of forgetting I. Memory Distortion I. Repression/Active Forgetting Jeremy illustrates the different kinds of memory • Note: the announcer is a moron and mis-describes some aspects of J’s memory LONG TERM SENSORY EXPLICIT IMPLICIT DECLARATIVE ICONIC ECHOIC WORKING EPISODIC Experience Awareness Storage Kinds of Memory WORKING LONG TERM SENSORY Attention Operations of Memory WORKING LONG TERM SENSORY Rehearsal Attention Operations of Memory WORKING LONG TERM SENSORY Encoding Retrieval Rehearsal Attention Operations of Memory Causes of Forgetting • Poor encoding? • Interference? • Retrieval-cue problems? Forgetting as encoding failure • Information is poorly encoded into LTM Which is the real penny? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) Answer Repetition On a telephone, which key corresponds to the letter “J”? X Repetition On a telephone, which key corresponds to the number “4”? X Encoding failures • Even though you’ve seen thousands of pennies or telephones, you’ve probably never attended to one closely enough to encode all of its specific features • Bottom-Line: Sheer repetition does NOT necessarily lead to good memory Forgetting as retrieval failure • Not all forgetting is due to encoding failures • Sometimes info IS encoded into LTM, but we can’t retrieve it Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval X Encoding Working memory Long-term memory Retrieval failure theories • Interference • Retrieval cue problems Interference • Forgetting is NOT caused by mere passage of time • Caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory Retroactive interference • When a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information Retroactive interference Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep After remaining awake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours elapsed after learning items 90% 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Percentage of items recalled Memory Demonstration Your task: You will see a picture of a face for 5 seconds. Study it closely because you will be asked questions about it later Spend the next 3 minutes writing down as many U.S. states as you can. A 3 minute Task Face memory test 20 40 60 80 100 P e r c e n t C o r r e c t Face Memory Results Write U.S. States Describe Face Write U.S....
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Nosek during the Spring '07 term at UVA.

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12MemPt2 - Memory part 2 Overview I. Memory: The Basic...

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