12MemPt2 - Memory part 2 Overview I II Memory The Basic...

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Memory part 2
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Overview I. Memory: The Basic Problems I. Some causes of forgetting I. Memory Distortion I. Repression/Active Forgetting
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Jeremy illustrates the different kinds of memory Note: the announcer is a moron and mis-describes some aspects of J’s memory
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LONG TERM SENSORY EXPLICIT IMPLICIT DECLARATIVE ICONIC ECHOIC WORKING EPISODIC Experience Awareness Storage Kinds of Memory
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WORKING LONG TERM SENSORY Attention Operations of Memory
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WORKING LONG TERM SENSORY Rehearsal Attention Operations of Memory
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WORKING LONG TERM SENSORY Encoding Retrieval Rehearsal Attention Operations of Memory
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Causes of Forgetting Poor encoding? Interference? Retrieval-cue problems?
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Forgetting as encoding failure Information is poorly encoded into LTM
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Which is the real penny? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o)
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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) Answer
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Repetition On a telephone, which key corresponds to the letter “J”? X
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Repetition On a telephone, which key corresponds to the number “4”? X
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Encoding failures Even though you’ve seen thousands of pennies or telephones, you’ve probably never attended to one closely enough to encode all of its specific features Bottom-Line: Sheer repetition does NOT necessarily lead to good memory
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Forgetting as retrieval failure Not all forgetting is due to encoding failures Sometimes info IS encoded into LTM, but we can’t retrieve it Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval X Encoding Working memory Long-term memory
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Retrieval failure theories Interference Retrieval cue problems
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Interference Forgetting is NOT caused by mere passage of time Caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory
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Retroactive interference When a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information
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Retroactive interference Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep After remaining awake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours elapsed after learning items 90% 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage of items recalled
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Memory Demonstration Your task: You will see a picture of a face for 5 seconds. Study it closely because you will be asked questions about it later
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