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Caliphs Umar.pdf - 1 Hazrat Umar’s (R.A) caliphate...

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1Hazrat Umar’s (R.A) caliphateAdministration:Hazrat Umar not only conquered a vast empire during the ten year of his Khilafat but also consolidated it byan effective system of administration. As an administrator, he remained a model for all rulers who followedhim. He introduced the following reforms during his caliphate.1.Hazrat Umar framed the constitution of the state on the basis of democracy. He established theMajlis e Shuraconsisting of prominent companions of the holy Prophet from both Muhajirin andAnsars. Hazrat Umar consulted this body in all matters. He also constituted a larger body called theMajlise- Aam,consisting of Muhajirin and Ansar and representatives of various tribes. This wascalled into session on special occasions.2.He took steps to give the Islamic State aclean and efficient administration. The State was dividedinto Provinces and each province was placed under an efficientGovernor called the Wali or Ameer.The wali was not only the ruler of the province but also the military and religious head. The provinceswere furthers divided ontodistricts and placed under Amils.3.Judiciarywas established under theQazi. He separated executive from judiciary. In this way heassured the citizens swift and impartial justice.The judiciary was made completely independent andimpartial. He was displeased when a judge showed some respect to him when he appeared in hiscourt as a defendant.4.All appointments were made in consultations with the Majlis e Shura. The appointee was given aregular order of appointment setting out his duties and emoluments. The person appointed to a highpost was required to give a written undertaking to lead a simple Islamic life. He had to submitparticulars of his property and assets, so that on his retirement, it may be seen whether he hadamassed wealth by illegal means. Hazrat Umar kept a very strict watch on the activities of his officers.He used to receivesecret reports from officersspecially appointed for this purpose.5.Thebait ul maalwas created under Amils. After meeting the expenditure of the State, the surplusmoney used to be distributed among the Muslims based on three principles: relationship with theholy Prophet; priority of conversion to Islam and military services to Islam. In this way, all Muslimmen, women, slaves and children had share in the bait- ul- Maal or the public treasury. He made thegovernment finances save from misuse and kept corruption out of government.6.Hazrat Umar set up adepartment of finance the Diwan, which was in charge of the revenue of thecentre and the provinces. The function of the Diwan was to regulate the receipt and disbursement ofthe caliphate’s revenues which were generated from jizya, zakat, kharaj(tax levied on the land of non-Muslims) and fay (income from crown lands). A tax called ushr was also levied on the produce of land.

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Term
Summer
Professor
N/A
Tags
Abu Bakr, Rashidun army, Rashidun Caliphate, Muslim conquest of Persia, Ansars Hazrat Umar

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