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History.pdf - Pak Studies paper 1 History HISTORY IN SHORT...

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Pak Studies paper 1 HistoryHISTORY IN SHORT …by USMAN HAMEEDPage 1HISTORY IN SHORT …..MUGHAL DECLINE:The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time ofAurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed within a fewdecades after his death. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors;Firstly Aurangzeb’s policiesare regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity amongthe INDIAN people. Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the empire. His predecessors did a lot towin over the loyalties of their subjects, particularly the Rajputs and the other Hindus. But Aurangzeb was a fanatic andcould not tolerate the non-Muslims. He imposedJaziaand forbade the celebration of Hindu festivals. He thus lost thefriendship and loyalty of the Rajputs. His execution of theSikh guruand his hatred with the Marathas forced them toraise arms against him. Being a fanaticSunni Muslim, he could not tolerate even theShias. They too turned againsthim. He laid too much stress on simplicity and was against singing, dancing and drinking which were common habitsof the Muslim nobles. They did not like a king who was so much against their ways.His excessive obsession with theDeccanalso destroyed the Mughal army, the treasury and alsoadversely affected his health. So after Aurangzeb’sdeath the mighty empire disintegrated into smaller states.Anotherreason was unworthyand incompetent successorsof Aurangzeb. The character of Mughal kings haddeteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character,motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totallydisregarded their state duties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall. These later Mughal rulerswere proven neithergood generals nor good statesmenwho could control or administer the large empire whichcovered nearly the whole of the subcontinent during Aurangzeb’s rule. The later rulers were renowned forliving anextravagant lifestylewith little thought to the effect it had on the economy of the empire. They also lacked courage,determination and training. Money was spent lavishly on fine buildings, jewellery, fine clothes and food. Noinfrastructure was created for the improvement of administration, industry or agriculture.Theabsence of any definite law of successionwas another important factor. The war of successions not only led tobitterness, bloodshed, and loss of money and prestige of the empire over a period of time, but to its eventual fall.After the death of a ruler, the princess fought for the throne. This eroded the strength and led to the instability of theMughal Empire. Jahangir, as prince Salim, revolted against his father Akbar. Shah Jahan revolted against Jahangir.

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Term
Summer
Professor
N/A
Tags
Diplomacy, Quit India, Usman Hameed

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