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Caliph Usman R.A.pdf - 1 Hazrat Usman’s (R.A) caliphate...

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1Hazrat Usman’s (R.A) caliphateElection as Caliph:On his death bed, Hazrat Umar nominated a committee of six persons (Shura) to hold consultation and select hissuccessor from among themselves within three days;(1)HazratAli(2) Hazrat Usman(3) Zubair ibn awwam(4) Abdur Rehman bin Auf(5) Talha (6) Sa’ad bin AbiWaqasAll these persons were among the most eminent companions of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), whom he had given tidings ofparadise in their lifetimes. During his life Hazrat Umar’s choice was fixed on Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah for his distinctivequalities but he had passed away. The next choice was Abdur Rehman bin Auf who was not willing to shoulder thegreat responsibility. Of the remaining nominees, Talha was not present at Madinah: therefore, the choice was nowrestricted to the remaining four members. It was decided that as Abdur Rehman bin Auf had retired from the contest,he might choose the Khalifa out of the remaining four he consulted each one individually as to his opinion.Sa’adsupported Hazrat Usman. WhileZubair mentioned both Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali,Hazrat Usman voted forHazrat AliandHazrat Ali voted for Hazrat Usman.Abdur Rehman asked the opinion of other prominent men as well and arrived at the conclusion that the majority ofthe people favoured the succession of Hazrat Usman and, thus, he was declared as the elected Khalifa. Abdur Rehmanbin Auf was the first to take the Bayyat or Pledge and he was followed by Hazrat Ali and other companions and thenthere was a general Bayyat. Hazrat Usman became the third Khalifa of Islam on the 4thMuharram 24 A.H/644AD.Military campaigns (Expansion of Islamic state)As soon as the news of Hazrat Umar’s death spread, spontaneous revolts sprung up, as the conquered nations withinthe Muslim Empire saw his death as an opportunity to recover their lost independence.Persian Empire:Persia in particular was rocked by local rebellions so that from644 to 649the two great Muslim armies atKufaandBasrawere locked in a series of internal campaigns.The more distant areas in the mountain territories ofArmenia, Azerbaijanand the Caucasus quicklyrepossessed their dominion. They fought off the determined counter attacks of the Muslim forces destroyingat least two of their armies. Five years of campaign and counter-campaign at last re-established Muslimsauthority in the Persian Empire.By 650, the Muslim armies were once more on the offensive and had pushed the frontier into Central Asiawith ancient cities ofHerat, Merv, Balkh and Kabuloccupied by Muslim outposts. Two years later, Yazdegirdthe heir of the Persians was killed.Byzantine (Roman) EmpireIn the first year of Hazrat Usman caliphate Egypt also flared up in revolt supported by a bold counter-attackby the Byzantine Empire which dispatched a fleet of 300 ships into Alexandria’s great harbour. The Greek-speaking population of the city rose in support and massacred 1000 soldiers of the Muslim garrison. HazratUsman had replacedAmr ibn Aaswith his cousinAbdullah bin Saadas the governor of Alexandria however,he was unable to bring the situation under control.

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Term
Summer
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Ali, Abu Bakr, HAZRAT USMAN

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