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Natural SelectionANTH 311Week 2Thursday September 16Ian GilbyPhoto: © CYRIL RUOSO (BIOS/PETER ARNOLD INC.)1
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1.History of Primate Studies2.Basics of Natural Selection3.Trait Types4.Behavior as a TraitOutline11
Kinji Imanishi, Uganda 1958,searching for gorillas and theorigins of human society.Imanishi founded JapaneseprimatologyTimeline:Pre WWII: nothing much happened1950s: Japanese studies of Japanese macaques and the search for apes1960s: Field studies of baboons and apes (Goodall, Fossey)1970s: Systematic behavioral ecology data on most major taxa1980s-now: Hypothesis-testing; intra-specific variation; field experiments; cognition;elusive speciesHistory of Primate Studies12
1stwave2ndwave3rdwaveMostly terrestrial, African (baboon, gorilla, vervet etc)More arboreal, New World, Africa (colobus) and Madagascar (lemur) etc.Potted history of primatology: a focuson easily seen species in big groups1950s: Japanese macaque (big groups because of provisioning)13
1960s: Crude correlations between ecology and social behaviorAlmost alldiurnalprimates live in social groupsSole exception: orangutans (solitary)OrangutanPongo pygmaeusAzara’s Owl MonkeyAotus azarai azaraiAlmost allnocturnalprimates forage solitarilyExceptions: Owl (or night) Monkeys (and woolly lemurs?)14
Social Structurethe nature, quality and patterning of social relationshipsRelationships between Individualsthe nature, quality and patterning of interactionsInteractions among individualsRankKin-shipSexAgeHistory of Primate SocialityRobert Hinde197515
1.History of Primate Studies2.Basics of Natural Selection3.Trait Types4.Behavior as a TraitOutline16
Animals are extremely welladapted to their environmentMany of these adaptations areextremely complexHow did this come about????Two observations…17
Biological ComplexityEvolutionSmallchanges overlongperiods**Phenotypic and geneticchange through time**18
Lamarck’s Theory of the Inheritance of AcquiredCharacteristicsIn a new environment, certain parts may be used more than others. After prolonged use,the structure is modified over the course of a lifetime.The new trait is passed down toits descendants.Precursors to Natural Selection19
Lamarck’s Theory of the Inheritance of AcquiredCharacteristicsIn a new environment, certain parts may be used more than others. After prolonged use,the structure is modified over the course of a lifetime.The new trait is passed down toits descendants.

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Term
Winter
Professor
Pavelka

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