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Review Session 1

Review Session 1 - Accreted from planetesimals within the...

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Accreted from planetesimals within the solar nebula, initially homogenous planets became molten and physically and chemically segregated. The inner planets have dense, metal-rich inner cores, less-dense mantles, and outer crusts formed from the least dense materials.
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The chemical implications of a differentiated Earth are profound. You only need to consider a relatively small number of elements as we study the rock- forming minerals.
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Minerals -- the building blocks of rocks naturally occurring - not made by humans solid - not liquid or gas crystalline substances - regular internal arrangement of atoms, repeating in an orderly 3D array (called a lattice) - not a glass or amorphous inorganic - not composed of organic carbon (having carbon in the 0 oxidation state bound to carbon and hydrogen) but can be made by organisms specific chemical composition - fixed or varies within well defined limits
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Minerals Classified by chemical composition, the major groups are: silicates (quartz, SiO 2 ) carbonates (calcite, CaCO 3 ) oxides and hydroxides (hematite, Fe 2 O 3 ) sulfides (pyrite, FeS 2 ) sulfates (gypsum, CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O) halides (halite, NaCl) Typically, only about 30 minerals are common in rocks.
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