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chapter1 - IPHY 3430 Human Physiology Fall 2007 REVIEW...

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IPHY 3430 – Human Physiology Fall 2007 REVIEW TOPICS & STUDY QUESTIONS – Chapter 1: Homeostasis Lecture Summary 1. Living systems consist of a hierarchy of complexity, with the basic unit of all life, the cell. Many cells of similar structure and function form a tissue. Tissues form organs and organs form body systems. Each body system has one or more functions (e.g., our integumentary system reduces water loss, aids in thermoregulation, and protects us from infection). The eleven body systems work together within an organism. 2. Cell survival depends upon some basic requirements, such as consumption of oxygen, release of carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste, breakdown of nutrients, maintenance of ionic equilibria, the ability to respond to local extracelluar change, and, in some cases, cell division. These cellular requirements are reflected in the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the waste we excrete. 3. Homeostasis the dynamic process of maintaining relatively constant conditions within the body's internal environment. Many physiological parameters, such as blood glucose and body temperature, are precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Regulation of a physiological event usually occurs via a feedback mechanism. Negative feedback is more common and is the response of the system in a direction opposite to the change that set it in motion. The end result of negative feedback is to correct for deviations and restore normal physiological levels. Conversely, positive feedback is a response which further enhances the change that set it in motion. Feedforward
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