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Theory: A general set of explanatory claims about some specifiable empirical range Hypothesis: A specific prediction, derived from a theory, that can be tested against empirical evidence Deductive Reasoning: The process of moving from general claims or theories to specific observations or predictions about a phenomenon or set of cases Deviant Case (Outlier): A case that does not fit the pattern predicted by a given theory Inductive Reasoning: The process of moving from specific observations to general claims Thesis: A statement for which one argues on the basis of evidence Qualitative: A form of analysis that aims to discern relationships between events or phenomena as described in narrative form, such as an account of a historical process Quantitative: Quantitative analysis aims for the math discernment of relationships between variables, typically involving a large number of cases or observations Inference: The process through which we aim to test observable implications (often about

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