learning - Learning Theories When we talk of learning we usually think of something related to the classroom such as English or Math However

learning - Learning Theories When we talk of learning we...

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Learning Theories When we talk of learning we usually think of something related to the classroom, such as English or Math. However, Psychologists refer to learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience'. Learning is a fundamental process in all organisms. All organisms need to adapt their behavior in order to fit in with the environment and to adapt to changing circumstances in order to survive. Much of our behavior consists of learned responses to simple signals. Some psychologists believe that behavior is the sum of many simple stimulus-response connections. Behaviorism Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology that assumes that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior However there are other psychologists who think that stimulus-response is too simplistic and that even simple responses to stimuli require the processing of a vast amount of information. The Behaviorists are a group of psychologists who focus on these stimulus- response connections, the two most famous being Watson and Skinner. Behaviorism arose because there was dissatisfaction with approaches in psychology that involved 'unscientific, techniques such as introspection and dealt with immeasurable aspects of behavior such as the role of the unconscious mind. Behaviorists try to explain the causes of behavior by studying only those behaviors that can be observed and measured. Associative learning Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning , i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning: classical conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning. Classical Conditioning 1
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This is learning by association. Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training. A naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Then, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs’ digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled “psychic reflexes.” While an accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. He studied salivation in dogs as part of his research program. Normally, dogs will salivate at the when food is presented, but
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