Ecology final Cumm. review - 30 November 2014 Review for...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

30 November 2014Review for the Final ExamComprehensive SectionYour final exam will be divided approximately evenly between the new material we have covered since Exam III (see other review sheet) and a comprehensive section covering the entire course’s content. It will be worth more than other exams (120 points vs. 80 points). It will not require the entire 3-hour exam period, but you may take as much of that time as you need. In your studying for the comprehensive section (which will be about 60 of the total 120 points), you should go back to your lecture powerpoints, notes, old review sheets, and previous exams to remind yourself of the major concepts and more general questions we addressed throughout the semester. You should be able to describe or identify major ecological principles and phenomena. In some questions you will be given graphs, tables, or descriptions of observations to interpret. Some of these may be familiar examples, while others may be unfamiliar. You won’t be asked to recall detailed information from specific experiments or studiesfor the comprehensive section, but you should be able to answer questions based on your knowledge of ecology and skills in interpreting data. Here are some major concepts that you should recognize and understand: Material for Exam IDistinguish studies conducted at level of individual, population, community, and ecosystemEcosystem: organisms that make up a community and their abiotic environmentCommunity: groups of interacting species inhabiting same placePopulation: all individuals of same species living in same place at same time Interpreting statistical test results (what the p-value means); elements of effective experimental design – proper replication, controls, randomizationNeed at least two factors in treatmentsReplication must be independent (experimental unit)Randomization (in positioning or assigning subjects to treatments for example)Darwin’s 4 postulates for evolution by natural selection1. Individuals with in a species are variable2. Heritable variation (some of these variations are passed on to offspring)3. Every generation has some individuals that are more successful at surviving and reproducing4. Reproduction and survival of individual are not random. Those with more favorable traits survive longer and have higher reproductive success. (If these are all true then there can be evolution through natural selection)The 4 mechanisms of evolution: natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation1. Mutation: New alleles into a population, ultimate source of genetic variation, relatively weak force of evolution2 Genetic Drift: Random change in allele frequency in population due to chance events, only significant in small populations3. Gene Flow: Alleles transferred between populationsBiology 203 – Fall 2014Review for Final Exam – comprehensive section
30 November 20144. Natural Selection: (only mechanism that leads to adaptation) differential survival and/or reproduction of individuals with certain heritable traits

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture