3 - STM & WM - Chapter 3: Introduction to Memory...

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Chapter 3: Introduction to Memory Short-Term Memory and Working Memory INTRODUCTION TO MEMORY - Usually referred to as storage - Processes of putting in and taking out of storage (actions) - Box of storage space I. Memory in Perspective - The modal model Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Benchmark (excellent example) of a model of memory Very influential in shaping memory research 108 pages long <Fig 1> - Sensory Memory Iconic, Echoic - Short-Term Memory Present state of consciousness Limited capacity Conventional view: 7 +/- 2 items - Avg = 7 - Range = 5-9 Current view: 4 +/- 1 items - Avg = 4 - Range = 3-5 Duration = 30 seconds - Long-Term Memory Things that are there but not currently thinking about “Unlimited” capacity and duration Can last a lifetime Anything held more than 30 seconds - Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction HM (STM was normal but had difficulty learning new things) The Modal Model – still widely accepted II. Three Phases of Memory 1. Encoding (processes involved in the formation of a memory) 2. Storage 3. Retrieval (processes involved in retrieving information out of memory) 310 STM&WM 1
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- LTM for a common object Extraordinarily poor The probability of storage in LTM depends on how well the information was encoded - Levels of processing – deep and shallow - Craik and Lockhart - Continuum: Shallow (Poor) ------ Deep (Best) The Penny Experiment <Fig 2> - Choose correct penny from those pictured - Shows the importance of encoding - Seeing something thousands of times does not mean we have properly encoded it - If you consciously pay attention you can properly encode it There’s a difference between forgetting and the failure to retrieve - Contextual clues can be important III. The Serial Position Curve in Free Recall - The rationale for setting up an experiment is very important! - Dozen words - One every few seconds - Free recall them - Primacy Effect – storage in LTM - Recency Effect – storage in STM Can hold some things in STM even without rehearsing it - The role of rehearsal in storage in LTM - Rundus - Concurrent verbal reports - Rundus found that for the first 6 or 7 items on the list, the probability of recall was correlated significantly with the number of rehearsals whereas for the rest of the items, that correlation was close to zero - Immediate recall task vs. delayed recall <Fig 4> In delayed recall, the primacy effect stays intact but the recency effect is gone The recency effect reflects storage in STM in experiments of this kind – bunch of words every few seconds and recall - Most recent things - Long term recency effect - American presidents - Last time you ate in a restaurant - Has nothing to do with STM **MISSED LECTURE NOTES FROM 2/15 FROM PH** IV. Short-Term Memory - The Simple Memory Span Test 310 STM&WM 2
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Single items One per second Serial recall Digit span, letter span, word span, etc. 7 +/- 2 items for one syllable words (excludes “seven” and “zero”)
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3 - STM &amp; WM - Chapter 3: Introduction to Memory...

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