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4 - LTM - Chapter 4 Long-Term Memory Declarative(Explicit...

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Chapter 4: Long-Term Memory Declarative (Explicit) Memory - Consciously recollect - What did you do yesterday? Nondeclarative (Implicit) Memory - Things you can demonstrate through behavior but can not consciously recollect - HM’s mirror image tracing task - Swimming, riding a bike - Examples of recognizing grammar EXPLICIT MEMORY I. Introduction 1. Episodic Memory Events you have experienced (may not be unique to you) Information unique to you (SSN, etc) 2. Semantic Memory General knowledge Jeopardy, rules for operating a car, etc - The Ebbinghaus Tradition Nonsense syllables 60% forgotten in 8 hours II. Semantic Knowledge in Permastore - System within LTM - Permastore holds information that is 6 years old or more - Can maintain for the rest of life without rehearsal - Bahrik <Fig 33> How well do people remember Spanish learned as a second language in high school? N=733 (sample size) Ages ranged from 17-74 Took 1, 3, or 5 courses in Spanish Classic study in LTM Multiple regression (helps us to isolate nuisance variables like how do we know they didn’t speak Spanish after high school) All curves are parallel which means the rate at which people forget is the same Ebbinghaus and Bahrik: a contrast - Bahrik found much better retention rate than Ebbinghaus - Ebbinghaus learned his nonsense syllables only one time 310 LTM 1
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- Bahrik’s subjects had distributed practice – learning occurred over a period of time - If learned in one session, forgetting can be very rapid Overlearning (review material) and Distributed Practice (learning over period of time) Overlearning advantage: can recall material rapidly - Long Term Retention of Spanish 1, 3, or 5 courses Two conclusions: 1.
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