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Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Exam 1 Review *NOTE: Phrases such...

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Exam 1 Review*NOTE: Phrases such as “be familiar with…..” and “Distinguish between….. and …….” meanthat you should know everything about those concepts.Chapter 1Be familiar with the following psychologists, their contributions to the field, and theirrespective school of thought (where applicable):oWilhelm WundtOpened first psych lab in Germany (1879)Believed that psych should focus on analyzing consciousness (a person’ssubjective experience of the world and mind)Done by breaking down to its elements (aka structuralism) throughintrospection (the subjective observation of one’s own experience)oWilliam JamesFirst to take scientific approach to study psychFunctionalism- study of the purpose mental processes serve in enablingpeople to adapt to their environmentInterested in the purpose. How memory, emotions, etc. affect humanbehavioroSigmund FreudPsychoanalyticHow the unconscious shapes our thoughts and behaviorsBelieves the subconscious is a big part of our personalityEncouraged clients to say anything that came to mindThen he would focus on what the patient is trying to hideoIvan PavlovBehavioristFounded classical conditioningPairing a neutral stimulus with a response-evoking stimulus tocreate response to the neutral stimulusDog salivating experimentUnconditioned stimulusoSomething that automatically elicits a response (withoutteaching)oEx. Showing food to a dog = dog salivatesNeutral/conditioned stimulusoSomething that does not elicit a response at alloEx. Ringing a bell to a dog = dog would not do anythingClassical conditioningoConditioned dog to get a new response to that stimulusoEx. Pairing the food to a bell
oJohn B. WatsonBehavioristInfluenced by PavlovGoal: predict and control behavior through the study of observablebehaviorBelieves that environment determines behavior, not geneticsLittle Albert experimentClassically conditioned baby to be scared of white ratsGeneralization- also developed fear of similar animalsoEx. Rabbits, etc.UnethicalShows that environment and past experiences make things scary,not the thing itselfoB.F. SkinnerFounded operant conditioningReinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreasesbehavioroTrying to teach new behaviorsoEx. Taught pigeons to play ping pong using reinforcementDeveloped “Skinner box” or conditioning chamberoTaught rats to press lever to get foodlever = food (positive reinforcement)if an area shocks the rat (punishment), the rat willnot go into that areaoAbraham MaslowHumanisticHierarchy of needsBasic needs must be met first (survival- food, water, shelter) tofocus on other needs (physical, mental, self-actualization)oprioritiesoCarl RogersHumanisticClient-centered psychSelf-actualization in a positive and open environmentDistinguish between the phenomena that led to the rise of cognitive psychology andbehaviorism?

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Term
Spring
Professor
SHORE

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