Notes on Article III - Article III of the Constitution and the Judiciary Act of 1789 establish the judicial branch of government Article III briefly

Notes on Article III - Article III of the Constitution and...

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Article III of the Constitution and the Judiciary Act of 1789 establish the judicial branch of government. Article III briefly refers to a Supreme Court of the United States and grants Congress the authority to create lower courts at its discretion. The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the structure of the courts: Today there are 94 district courts, 13 circuit courts and 1 Supreme Court. Judicial Appointments The Constitution grants the president the authority to nominate judges, but these nominations are subject to the advice and consent of the Senate. Judges confirmed by the Senate serve during “good behavior,” or life, unless otherwise removed. The Senate established a custom crucial to judicial independence: that judges would not be removed due to partisan disagreements with their decisions.
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Unformatted text preview: Jurisdiction The lawful authority of a court to hear a case is its jurisdiction. For the Supreme Court, there are two types of jurisdiction. Appellate, which is the authority to hear cases from lower courts (both state and federal) Original, which is the authority to hear the case first. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases involving foreign dignitaries and disputes between states. Congress and Jurisdiction-continue Congress creates federal judgeships and courts. As of 2007, Congress had authorized 179 court of appeals judgeships and 678 district court judgeships and had authorized 352 bankruptcy judgeships and 551 full-time and part-time magistrate judgeships. Congress also controls the types of cases that the federal courts may hear....
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  • Spring '15
  • Chinmayi
  • Supreme Court of the United States, President of the United States

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