Roanoke Experiment: Sir Walter Raleigh and his half brother Humphrey Gilbert were favorites of the queen. Charter that Gilbert uses to settle Newfoundland. Raleigh later settles Roanoke Island, North Carolina. 1584 – First settlers – picked up by Drake on his way back because they hate it and are starving. 1587 – Sir Raleigh brings a new group, including John White. Virginia Dare is born. When the leadership leaves for supplies, only to return in 1590, the whole colony is gone. Only the words CROATOAN is there. WHAT THE EARLY COLONIES HAVE IN COMMON: •Joint stock company •Private financing by “adventurers” •No effort to blend with the natives •Nothing worked as planned •London Company charter •144 men (104 make it) •Susan Constant, Godspeed, Discovery •Search for gold •Floundered for a year – 38 are alive •Captain John Smith imposes discipline – injured and returns to England. 1609 – The Great Fleet arrives with 600 including women and children.
•Bad luck •60 people survive •Starving Time – 1609/1610 – turn to cannibalism Lord De La Warr arrives 1610 – •Imposes almost martial law •Not happy, but it works •Sir Thomas Dale and Sir Thomas Gates follow •Capital punishment •Begin to allow private ownership of land 1612 – John Rolfe – akaHusband of Pocahontas •Jamestown planter •Discovers a hearty mix of tobacco •Powhatan Indians Chief’s daughter Pocahontas converts to Christianity and marries him in 1614 (after being kidnapped). •Becomes Lady Rebecca - dies •He dies in Algonquians raid in 1622 THE TEMPEST by William Shakespeare •English society in the form of Prospero •Traveling to a remote place •Inhabited by Barbarians – Caliban •Hoping its an Eden •Fear of the uncivilized world and what it would do to traditional values 1616 – Headright system in place 1619 – Iron workers arrive 1622-1644 – lots of Native American battles 1629 – Converts to Royal charter HOUSE OF BURGESSES An additional inducement was provided by the company’s effort to make local government in Virginia more responsive to the colonists. In July 1619, a meeting of the House of Burgesses was held in Jamestown, the first such assembly in the Americas. The initial session accomplished little, however; it was cut short by an outbreak of malaria. The assembly comprised 22 members who represented the following constituencies: •The governor, who was appointed to his position by the company officials in London •The governor’s council, six prominent citizens selected by the governor •The burgesses (representatives) from various locales, initially the larger
From a modern standpoint, UN-American. •George Calvert, 1stLord Baltimore, seeks refuge for Catholics in the colonies •1632 – his son, Lord Baltimore (Cecilius) gets a charter from the King for huge tract of land with all rights and kingly powers.