lec_8,9,10_pulmonary

lec_8,9,10_pulmonary - The Pulmonary System Part I. Lung...

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The Pulmonary System Part I. Lung Structure/Anatomy and mechanics of breathing Major functions of lung: Maintain O 2 content of blood Eliminate CO 2 Regulate H + Evaluate lung structure based on its function How does O 2 enter the blood? How does CO 2 leave the blood?
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Law of Diffusion: Gases can exist in air or dissolved in solution The rate of transfer of a gas through a sheet of tissue is: Diff. Rate = Area x sol. x (P1-P2) Thickness x M.W. Directly Proportional to the tissue area, the difference in gas partial pressure between the two sides, and the solubility Inversely proportional to the tissue thickness (diffusion distance), and molecular weight. Solubility ? Amount of a gas dissolved in solution, per unit volume of a solution, at a given pressure. O 2 solubility = 0.30 ml O 2 /dl blood at 100 mmHg CO 2 solubility = about 20x that of O 2 !
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Respiratory Structures: evaginated surfaces i.e., gills Raised surface Fish Larval amphibians
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Respiratory Structures: invaginated, completely internalized i.e., lungs
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How would you design a lung structure to maximize diffusion? Maximize what? Minimize what?
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Short O 2 diffusion distance
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Exceedingly thin ! (0.5 microns) Exceedingly large s urface area (50-100 square meters) accomplished by wrapping small blood vessels (pulmonary capillaries) around an enormous number (300 million) small air sacs (alveoli) The blood gas barrier: Alveolar wall-- capillary wall-- plasma --- erythrocyte (RBC) membrane
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Airways Trachea Right and left main bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles – the smallest airways without alveoli Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli
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Airflow in the lung? Conducting zone air moves by bulk flow (like water through a hose) Respiratory zone air flow slows down. Why? Gas diffusion in the respiratory zone is the predominant mechanism of ventilation
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PARABRONCHUS - atria for gas exchange; functional equivalent of alveoli
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deoxygenated blood in pulmonary artery oxygenated blood in pulmonary vein Human lung and pulmonary circulatory system
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Blood vessels and blood flow in the lung Pulmonary artery (deoxygenated blood) pulmonary capillaries pulmonary vein (oxygenated blood) Remember: The pulmonary artery receives the whole of the cardiac output!
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How much time does a RBC spend going through the pulmonary circuit?
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course ABIO 365 taught by Professor Brutsaert during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Albany.

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lec_8,9,10_pulmonary - The Pulmonary System Part I. Lung...

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