(14 May 1771, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales – 17
November 1858) was a Welsh social reformer and one of the
founders of socialism and the cooperative movement. Owen's
philosophy, which Karl Marx would later name utopian
In New Lanark (Scotland) he set out to establish a
model community, he bought cotton mills there and raised
wages, shortened work hours, improved working conditions,
abolished child labor, provided educational and recreational
facilities for employees and sickness/old age insurance.
model preferred a rural setting, but would eventually fail after
it’s spread due to economic and internal disagreements.
Industrial capitalism still remained after his death 1858.
Friend to Karl Marx, helped write seminal work “The Communist
Manifesto” (1848) Also helped write the later “Das Kapital”, both
treasties laid out the fundamentals of “scientific socialism”.
Georgism, named after Henry George (1839-1897), a U.S.
political economist, is a philosophy and economic ideology that
follows from the belief that everyone owns what they create,
but everything supplied by nature, most importantly land,
belongs equally to all humanity. Georgists argue that all of the
economic rent (ie, unearned income) collected from land, the
broadcast spectrum, mineral extraction, tradable emission
permits, fishing quotas, airway corridor use, seignorage, space
orbits, etc. and extraordinary returns from natural monopolies
should go to the community rather than the owner and that no
other taxes or burdensome economic regulations should be
levied. In practice that implies a high land value tax (LVT),
although no change in land rental prices (other than those
caused by reduction of other taxes and regulations) for
reasons first explained by Adam Smith.