Modern Europe

Modern Europe - 24/03/2008 19:21:00 Robert Owen • (14 May...

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24/03/2008 19:21:00 Robert Owen (14 May 1771, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of socialism and the cooperative movement. Owen's philosophy, which Karl Marx would later name utopian socialism. In New Lanark (Scotland) he set out to establish a model community, he bought cotton mills there and raised wages, shortened work hours, improved working conditions, abolished child labor, provided educational and recreational facilities for employees and sickness/old age insurance. His model preferred a rural setting, but would eventually fail after it’s spread due to economic and internal disagreements. Industrial capitalism still remained after his death 1858. Friedrich Engles Friend to Karl Marx, helped write seminal work “The Communist Manifesto” (1848) Also helped write the later “Das Kapital”, both treasties laid out the fundamentals of “scientific socialism”. Henry George Georgism, named after Henry George (1839-1897), a U.S. political economist, is a philosophy and economic ideology that follows from the belief that everyone owns what they create, but everything supplied by nature, most importantly land, belongs equally to all humanity. Georgists argue that all of the economic rent (ie, unearned income) collected from land, the broadcast spectrum, mineral extraction, tradable emission permits, fishing quotas, airway corridor use, seignorage, space orbits, etc. and extraordinary returns from natural monopolies should go to the community rather than the owner and that no other taxes or burdensome economic regulations should be levied. In practice that implies a high land value tax (LVT), although no change in land rental prices (other than those caused by reduction of other taxes and regulations) for reasons first explained by Adam Smith.[1] Alfred Marshall
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Alfred Marshall (July 26, 1842–July 13, 1924), born in Bermondsey, London, England, became one of the most influential economists of his time. His book, Principles of Economics (1890), brings the ideas of supply and demand, of marginal utility and of the costs of production into a coherent whole. It became the dominant economic textbook in England for a long period. 19 th Century Conservatism Sought to conserve the traditional hierarchy, economic system, and religious views. 19 th Century Radicalism The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favoring or trying to produce thorough ongoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to a greater or lesser extent toward the left. Historically, early radical aims of liberty and electoral reform in Great Britain widened with the American Revolution and French Revolution so that some radicals sought republicanism, abolition of titles, redistribution of property and freedom of the press. Initially
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Modern Europe - 24/03/2008 19:21:00 Robert Owen • (14 May...

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