Psychology Book Notes Exam 4

Psychology Book Notes Exam 4 - Psychology Book Notes Exam 4...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology Book Notes Exam 4 Chapter 9 Motivation- factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior How does motivation activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior? Energize they activate or arouse behaviors Directive guide behaviors in satisfying specific goals Persist until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied Needs, Drives and Arousal Motivate Behavior Need State of biological or social deficiencies within the body Lead to goal-directed behaviors Need hierarchy Maslows arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are the lowest and personal growth needs are the highest in terms of ultimate priority Psychological > Safety > Belonging and Love > Esteem > Self- Actualization Self- Actualization A state that is achieved when ones personal dreams and aspirations have been attained The greater the need, the greater the motivation to satisfy it. Drives Drive Psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs Arousal Term to describe psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or muscle tension Need creates arousal Homeostasis The tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium Negative feedback model : home heating and cooling system Set point: hypothetical state that indicates homeostasis Incentives External stimuli that motivate behaviors (as opposed to internal drives) Getting A on exam is an incentive to studying harder Needs create drives that motivate specific behaviors Nutrients > Hunger> Eating Arousal and Performance Yerkes-Dodson Law A psychological principle that dictates that behavioral efficiency increases with arousal up to the optimum point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal Optimal level of arousal : level of arousal people prefer Arousal motivates us to satisfy basic needs, but an optimal amount of arousal is also desirable on its own. Pleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviors Pleasure principle: tells organisms to seek pleasure and avoid pain Hedonism: refers to the human experience of pleasantness and unpleasantness We do things that feel good, and if something feels good, we do it again. Ex: Sex Adaptive behaviors us the dopamine system (experience of reward) May help guide adaptive behaviors by rewarding those that promote survival Some Behaviors are Motivated for Their Own Sake Extrinsic motivation Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed Ex: Working to earn a paycheck at the end of the week Intrinsic motivation Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent biological goal or purpose Ex: Listening to music Creativity and Problem Solving Creativity The capacity to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities, that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, or entertaining ourselves and others Rewarding Intrinsic Motives...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PSY 35147 taught by Professor Gosling during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Psychology Book Notes Exam 4 - Psychology Book Notes Exam 4...

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