Psychology Book Notes for Exam 5

Psychology Book Notes for Exam 5 - Book Notes for Exam 5...

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Book Notes for Exam 5 Chapter 12 Personality – characteristics, emotional responses, thoughts, and behaviors that are relatively stable over time and across circumstances. Personality trait – a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances How have scientists studied personality? Organization: personality is not just a list of traits but a coherent whole Dynamic: goal seeking, sensitive to context, and adaptive to the environment Personality causes people to think, behave, and feel in relatively consistent ways over time Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes Psychodynamic theory – Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior Pleasure principle: directs people to seek pleasure and avoid pain Libido: the energy that drives the pleasure principle These psychological forces can be in conflict, which was what Freud viewed as the essential cause of mental illness. A Topographical Model of Mind Topographical model: Freud proposed that the structure of the mind, the topography, was divided into three different zones of mental awareness Conscious level: people are aware of their thoughts Preconscious: content that is not currently in awareness but could be brought to awareness Unconscious: material that the mind cannot easily retrieve
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Freudian Slip: a person accidently reveals a hidden motive; information leaking into consciousness Development of Sexual Instincts Psychosexual stage – the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges Oral stage; anal stage; phallic stage; latency stage (building friendships); genital stage Structural Model of Personality Id – the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operated according to the pleasure principle Pleasure principle Superego – the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct Ego – the component of personality that tried to satisfy the wishes of the id which being responsive to the dictates of the superego Rational thoughts and problem solving Defense mechanisms – unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress. Humanistic Approaches Emphasize Integrated Personal Experience Humanistic Approaches – approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems, and propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential Phenomenology : subjective human experience; views each person as inherently good Self-actualization: potential for personal growth through self-understanding Unconditional positive regard: children are accepted, loved, and prized no matter how they behave Subjective well-being: a general term for how much happiness and satisfaction people have in their lives
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Broaden-and-build theory: positive emotions prompt people to consider novel and creative solutions to their problems Type and Trait Approaches Describe Behavioral Dispositions
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PSY 35147 taught by Professor Gosling during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Psychology Book Notes for Exam 5 - Book Notes for Exam 5...

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