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Lecture 1May 13thWhy study sex?Essential biological functionHealth and well-beingMost people do itIt is the focus of much attentionSocial issuesHistory and the BasicsRules disproportionately written by men, disproportionately applied to womenThe more educated, wealthy a region is more positive attitudes towards sexTaoismSpiritual energy to be shared between men and women (yin andyang)ChristianityLust considered a deadly sinEarly Christians– sex for procreation onlyMiddle Ages– lust, wet dreams, sexual dysfunction blamed on witchcraftProtestant Reformation– sex for procreation AND to enhance marital relationshipVictorian Era– extreme sexual repression, marital duty for procreation and men’s pleasure (chastity belts)History of Sex ResearchRichard Freiherr von Krafft-EbingoFirst person to document every caseoNon-procreative sex was a pervasionParadoxia– sexual desire at the wrong time of lifeAnesthesia– insufficient sexual desireIn current DSM (under different name), mostly womenHyperesthesia– excessive sexual desireMostly men, not in DSMParaesthesia– sexual desire for the wrong goal or objectFetishes for things not related to procreation (eg. feet, homosexuality)oFirst to attribute sexual orientation to biological causes Sigmund FreudoEverything tied to sexAlfred Kinsey
oFirst to publish major sex survey (but highly biased sample)oInflated rates of homosexuality and extramarital sexoScale of homosexuality most people in grey areaMasters and JohnsonoFirst to look at physiological sexual responsesoHighly biased sampleo4-phase model of sexual responseThe Basicsanatomycontextsexual behaviour:omay include genital and non-genital sexual expressionomay or may not include sexual arousal and orgasmCross-Cultural differencesCanada is more liberal and tolerant (less religious)Higher teen pregnancy rate in USWithin CanadaQuebec most sexually liberalImmigrants in Canada tend to be more conservativeCulture clashoEg. arranged marriage, sex education, homosexuality, medical visits for sexual health, daughters (disproportionately affected byrules), etc.Average number of lifetime partners: 1217% lifetime sexual monogamy>20: 23% of men, 13% of womenSex EdSources of informationoParents: timing, qualityoFriends/SiblingsTerrible informationoSchool (ie. Sex ed)oMedia: entertainmentoInternetoPornography: mechanics vs. fantasyCanadaProvinces set curriculum for schoolsSIECCAN has guidelines for sex ed (based on sex-positive model) upto provinces to decide whether or not to use those guidelinesMost programs focus on physiology, risk and danger (eg. unwanted pregnancy, STIs)Variation: depending on teacher, region
Abstinence-Only Sex EdStudents taught abstinence is the only acceptable behaviour