1/31/2015 1 Anti-colonialismBetween the Wars • • I. Overview: • Global • Vast empires created before war • Resistance of two kinds: led by modernizers and those led by traditionalists • Modernizers had little mass appeal, latter had lots of appeal • Most successful movements combined these forces • • Impact of World War I: • European civilization discredited, esp. as presenting the West as force for progress and justice • Bolshevik Revolution: creates new group of modernizers, the communists. Advocate industrialization, literacy, health care, equality but also class warfare. Able to take advantage of similarities between peasant communalism and communism. Esp. after Mao. Thus are able to organize peasants who, before l9l9, would have probably fought as traditionalists. • • • • II. India • A. Leaders: • -Indian Congress Party leads independence movement, ruling after independence • L885 developed by western educated Indians • Classic modernizers: saw Britain as model. But British colonial officials didn’t want to grant them rights. Leads to group protesting for access to colonial bureaucracy, Indian representation, and against racism. Otherwise loyal to British and confident in System • • -BG Tilak and Hindu traditionalism • pre WWI. Wanted to revive what he saw as ancient traditions of Hinduism. Opposes education for women and liberal demands • organizes religious festivals, turns them into political demonstrations against British. • • Tilak (not Gandhi) first to apply boycott of British goods to India. Demand full independence, and threaten armed rebellion. • Tilak first Indian nationalist leader with mass following. • -factors favoring Modernizers: • -appeal to Hindu traditions alienates Muslims, l/4 of population. Congress party wanted coexistence 1 2 3 4 5 6
1/31/2015 2 • -British repression of Talik. Preferred to deal with modernizers • • • • B. Development of mass all-Indian movement • -Mohandas Gandhi: fused modern and traditional movement • Gandhi: western educated, organized in South Africa • • • • Develops his idea of satyagraha, i.e. peaceful boycotts, non-cooperation and mass demonstration. To weaken British but not to provoke violent repression. He develops image of holy man, attracts mass following. Instead of calling for return of Hindu traditions, appeals to a pre-British India (i.e. maintains Muslims) • Still borrows much from British. But organized poor Indians into movement. Kept backing of merchants and capitalism that had most to gain. • -Growth of Movement: • WWI creates favorable conditions: British use Indian troops, make promises later betrayed • Gandhi first comes to light as leader in protesting this betrayal in early l920s.
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