SQ3R Chapter 13

SQ3R Chapter 13 - Archelle Grajeda Period 7 AP European...

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Archelle Grajeda Period 7 AP European History SQ3R Chapter 13 1) Explain communes. Communes were the northern Italian cities and sought economic independence from the nobles. There were merchant guilds which built and maintained all economic issues. Social connections started to form between the nobility. They formed close alliances that helped defend and expand their rights. Then a new force called the popolo was heavily taxed. This group was also excluded from the very inclusive alliances and they could not establish civil order within their cities. The next two centuries were ruled by signori (one man rulers) and oligarchies (rule of merchant aristocracies). 2) What was the balance of power among the Italian City-States? The Italians during the Renaissance anticipated the relations with European states after 1500. When ONE of the states felt a threat, they all would come together to establish a “balance of power” against whatever it was. In 1450, Venice went against Milan and Florence and Naples combined with Milan against Venice. Shifting alliances continued until 1494. Italy soon became a target for invading countries. Since they did not share a common alliance, the French invaded the Italian states. The cities suffered from the continual warfare. Pope Leo X made the Spanish and Germans allies to expel the French from Italy. 3) What is Individualism? Individualism can be defined as stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and full development of one’s capabilities and talents. The renaissance showed that the Italians of “unusual abilities” were unafraid to be unlike their neighbors. They were not afraid to be different or unique. Christianity discouraged self-absorption but the renaissance showed that individuals started to emerge and become fully realized. Desire, motivation, fame, and success had driven people to individualism. 4) What is Humanism? “New learning” is the basic definition of humanism. Humanists studied the Latin classics in order to educate themselves about human nature. Humanism emphasizes human beings. Human’s capabilities, interests, and achievements are studied. The difference between Renaissance humanists and medieval humanists is that before, they were more self-conscious about what they were doing, and they pressured the idea of human potential. Humanists became concerned about the way information was given rather than the content. They sought effective communication. 5) What is Secularism? Secularism “involves a basic concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit”. Before, during medieval times, usury was frowned upon. And since the Renaissance came, it was not. Secularism was focusing more on what was happening in the now about material things. People became wealthy from loans with
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interest. It became more and more acceptable to practice usury. Money lead to a more comfortable life for the wealthy. And the bankers started to calculate how they could earn even a greater amount of money. It allowed for more leisure time and power. A more
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SQ3R Chapter 13 - Archelle Grajeda Period 7 AP European...

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