SQ3R Chapter 22

SQ3R Chapter 22 - Archelle Grajeda Period 7 SQ3R Chapter 22...

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Archelle Grajeda Period 7 SQ3R Chapter 22 What where the Eighteenth Century origins? First there was an expansion of the Atlantic economy which mercantilist Britain favored. There was a strong trade in Latin America and of slaves. Trade was cheaper back then by sea than by land. England was all within 20 miles of sea and was in a good position. Rivers and canals made easy movement of England’s iron and coal resources. Secondly, the agriculture played a large role in starting the industrial revolution. They were very productive and came second to the Dutch. They had plentiful food and low prices. So one in England did not have to spend all their money just to buy bread. Thirdly, Britain had a central bank and well developed credit-markets. Lastly, Britain had a large class of hired agricultural laborers. And they were mobile. These factors lead to the industrial revolution. What were the first factories like? There were many technological innovations that the first large factories were in the British cotton textile industry. There was also a growing demand so there was always room for improvements. The constant shortage of thread in the textile industry mainly paid attention to improve the ways of spinning. James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny which produced cotton. At the same time Richard Arkwright invented a machine called a water frame. These breakthroughs produced an explosion in the cotton textile industry. By 1790 the new machines produced 10 times as much cotton that had been made in 1770. Cotton soon became cheaper and was bought by all classes. The weavers who worked in the factories were also paid very well. The working conditions were less than satisfactory. Abandoned young children often could be found in the factories. The workers sometimes had to work 14 hour days. What was the problem of energy? The problem was that water could not be a sufficient source of power because it was limited. Everything needs energy and it all first comes from plants. These plants can be given to things stronger than a human like say a horse. This horse then can be used to produce energy for the textile mills. They started basically converting sources of energy into others to their benefit. But still energy and power was limited and Western civilization remained dependent. What people needed was a new source of power and energy at their disposal. People couldn’t make much more. There was a demand for wood also since it kept every house warm and it mixed with iron it could make coal for other things. What was the Steam Engine Breakthrough? Since Britain saw the need for new sources of energy, they tried to figure a different way to obtain it. It was very difficult and inefficient if one miner could dig out only about 500 lbs of coal. So they tried having 5 hundred horses to pump the coal. It was extremely expensive and also not worth it. So Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 invented the first steam engines. They were both extremely
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inefficient still. They burned coal to produce steam and then it could pump. Still they
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SQ3R Chapter 22 - Archelle Grajeda Period 7 SQ3R Chapter 22...

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