SQ3R Chapter 29

SQ3R Chapter 29 - Archelle Grajeda Period 7 SQ3R Chapter 29...

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Archelle Grajeda Period 7 SQ3R Chapter 29 1. What is conservative authoritarianism? In European history, conservative authoritarianism was the traditional form of antidemocratic government. The leaders of these governments would try to prevent key changes that would challenge the existing social order. In order to do so, they would rely on obedient bureaucracies, vigilant police departments, and trustworthy armies. Popular participation in government was limited to landlords, bureaucrats, and high church officials. Liberals, democrats, and socialists were persecuted as subversive radicals and sentenced to jail or exile. Old-fashioned authoritarian governments were limited in their power and objects but they neither had the ability nor the hunger to control the many aspects of their subjects’ lives. Instead they focused merely on survival by limiting their demands towards taxes, army recruits, and passive acceptance. After the First World War, this kind of authoritarian government revived especially in the underdeveloped eastern part of Europe. By 1938 only economically and socially advanced Czechoslovakia remained true to liberal political ideals. Conservative dictators also took over in Spain and Portugal. Nationalists and military leaders were appealed to dictatorship as a way to repress tensions and preserve national unity. Landowners and church officials were still powerful in these areas and they often searched for dictators to save them from progressive land reform or communist agrarian upheaval. Although some of the conservative authoritarian regimes adopted some Hitlerian and facist ideals in the 1930s, their general goals and power were limited. Their traditions continued into the twenty-first century. 2. What are radical totalitarian dictatorships? Although conservative authoritarianism predominated in the smaller states of central and eastern Europe by the 1930s, a new kind of radical dictatorship surfaced within the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy. The leaders of these radical dictatorships violently rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values. These dictatorships would also exercise unparalleled control over the masses and sought to mobilize them for action. One useful interpretation of these regimes relates the radical dictatorships to the rise of modern totalitarian dictatorships. Early writers believed that modern totalitarian dictatorship emerged during the revolutionary total war effort of 1914-1918. The war called for a tendency to lower all institutions and classes to the state in order to achieve victory. Many western political scientists and historians believed that the totalitarian state used modern technology and communications to exercise complete political power. Modern totalitarianism societies were fully mobilized societies moving toward some goal
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SQ3R Chapter 29 - Archelle Grajeda Period 7 SQ3R Chapter 29...

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