Bio102-Chap2Notes

Bio102-Chap2Notes - Ecology Ecosystems Themes Introduction Ecological Hierarchy Ecosystems Energy Energy Flow-Food Chains-Ecological Pyramids

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Ecology / Ecosystems – Themes Introduction - Ecological Hierarchy Ecosystems Energy & Energy Flow - Food Chains - Ecological Pyramids Hierarchy of Ecological Study • Organism - The smallest entity for ecological study (adaptations, distributions, etc.) • Population - All members of a species living in a given area at the same time • Community - All of the populations of organisms living and interacting in a particular area • Ecosystem - Biological community and its physical environment Ecosystems – Themes - Energy flows through ecosystems - Energy must be supplied from an external source - Energy flows in a one-way path through living systems and is used for work or lost as heat - Matter (Nutrients) cycles within ecosystem Energy Basics - Energy - Ability to do work - Kinetic - Energy in moving objects - Potential - Stored energy - Chemical - Stored in food or fossil fuels - Power - Rate of doing work - Heat - Total kinetic energy of molecular motion in a substance - Temperature - Measure of speed of motion of atoms and molecules in a substance Thermodynamics (Laws of Energy) - First Law of Thermodynamics - Energy is neither created nor destroyed (conservation of energy) - Second Law of Thermodynamics - With each successive energy transfer, less energy is available to perform work - Lost heat —> System disorder (= Entropy) Ecosystem Energy Flow - Energy Flows through an Ecosystem in 2 forms: Light energy in carbon - Primary Producers - Use light to carry out Photosynthesis for productivity - Consumers - Eat other organisms and use Respiration to gain energy for productivity - Productivity – amount of biomass produced in a given are during a given time
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course BIOL 102 taught by Professor Kemp during the Fall '06 term at San Diego.

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Bio102-Chap2Notes - Ecology Ecosystems Themes Introduction Ecological Hierarchy Ecosystems Energy Energy Flow-Food Chains-Ecological Pyramids

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