Bio102-Chap8Notes - Environmental Health & Toxicology...

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Environmental Health & Toxicology Themes a. Environmental Health Hazards (Categories) i. Biological (infectious organisms) ii. Chemical (toxins, pollutants) iii. Also includes physical (e.g., radiation, noise) and cultural (work, lifestyle) aspects b. Chemical Toxicology i. Categories and effects ii. Movement / distribution of toxins iii. Measuring effects (toxicity) c. Risk Assessment and management 1. Environmental Health Hazards o Most human health problems are related to environment 0. Health = physical, mental, and social well-being 1. Disease = A deleterious change in the body’s condition in response to an environmental factor o Nutrition, infectious agents, toxic chemicals, physical and cultural factors can all cause disease —> morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) a. Infectious Organisms o Infectious organisms have been an important cause of mortality in human history 0. Infectious diseases still cause about 25% of all mortality 0. Majority of deaths in LDCs with poor nutrition, sanitation, and no vaccination programs 0. Respiratory disease —> #1 (~6 million deaths/yr) 1. AIDS —> #2 (~3 million deaths/yr) 2. Malaria —> #3 (~ 1 million deaths/yr) Factors that increase disease spread o Emergent diseases - unknown before or has increased virulence 2. Due to speed and frequency of modern travel o Short life & prolific repro. of pathogens —> evolution o Human tendency to overuse pesticides and antibiotics 3. Half routinely fed to farm animals 4. Half of human use is unnecessary 5. Malaria is now resistant to most antibiotics b. Toxic Chemicals 0. 2 categories of chemicals: Hazardous - Dangerous
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0. Flammable, explosive, irritant, acid, caustic Toxic - Poisonous 1. Can be general or very specific Toxic Chemicals / Agents classified by their effects: 0. Allergens - activate immune response (antigens) 1. Neurotoxins - attack nervous system 6. May kill neurons (heavy metals) or inhibit nerve transmission (organophosphates) 2. Mutagens - Agents that damage or alter DNA (genes) 3. Teratogens
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course BIOL 102 taught by Professor Kemp during the Fall '06 term at San Diego.

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Bio102-Chap8Notes - Environmental Health & Toxicology...

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