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Foundations of the concepts of the soul and the development of the sense of self and identity.docx

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Unformatted text preview: People who usually question themselves are having many philosophies. Started from questioning the origin of everything, until early-thinkers thought of the origin of themselves. Early-Thinkers (Greek) Greeks usually thinks of the deities or the creators of humankind Socrates (Greek) 470 – 399 BC: “An Unexamined life is not worth living” - - Father of Western Philosophy, known as the “Wisest man on Earth” First to focus on full power of reason in human self Who we are, who we should be and who we will become Self is synonymous with the soul Human have immortal soul which survives the physical body Reality has to two realms (Physical and Ideal) 1. Physical Realm – changeable, imperfect and bound to earth Holds the senses Physical world belongs Body belongs 2. Ideal realm – unchanging, perfect and transcends Death Holds reasoning Intellectual essences of the universe, truth, goodness and beauty Soul belongs Essence of soul is immortal entity, strives wisdom and perfection Physical body strives for growth and development Reason is the tool to achieve the soul`s exalted state Experience is the tool for physical body to grow and develop Soul is tied in the body so it is also inhibited to the imperfection Life must be examined of its value or purpose Happy and meaningful life is achieved only if you soul-search SOCRATIC METHOD (INTROSPECTION) – carefully examining one`s thought and emotions to gain self-knowledge Soul uses physical body as an instrument of perception Soul rules the physical body as Divine rules the Mortals Difficulties and understanding the self: Philosophical in nature, often practical, deliberate ignorance Soul is IMMOTAL AND ETERNAL Plato 428 or 424 – 348/347 BC (Greek): “The self is an Immortal Soul” - Elaborates Socrates’ concept of soul Student of Socrates Self is synonymous with the soul Soul is an intelligible, eternal world which the world cannot sense Philosophy – process of self-knowledge and purification TRIPARTITE SOUL/THREE-PART PSYCHE (Reason, Physical Appetite, and spirit or passion) Explained on a Chariot: Charioteer (Reason), white horse (Spirit) and black Horse (Desires) 1. Reason (Human Logic) – to think deeply, make wise choices and true understanding of truth 2. Physical Appetite (Human Desire) – basic biological needs such as hunger, thirst and sexual desire 3. Spirit or Passion (Human Spirit) – basic emotions such love, anger, ambition, aggressiveness and empathy These three works together to achieve harmony and productivity, have dynamic relationship or sometimes has a conflict - Conflict occurs – responsibility of reason to sort things out and exert control to restore harmony of the three elements of ourselves - - Genuine happiness – achieved when reason has control of spirit and appetite Concept in Justice – control of reason to all elements Man lives according to his nature = man gives essence to his existence THEORY OF FORMS – BIFURCATED (TWO) WORLDS 1. WORLD OF FORMS (non-physical ideas) – real and permanent 2. WORLD OF SENSE (reality) – temporary and replica of real world to the ideal world Sensible world is dependent on ideal world where the concept of soul belongs Man should give more importance to the soul than the physical body (world of sense) because it is permanent. Christian term: BC and AD Secular Term: BCE and CE NEOPLATONISM (CE 300) – Tradition of Philosophy after the closing of Platonic Academy in Athens (CE 529) o Spearhead by Plotinus (205-270 CE) – Roman conquered Greek culture but preserve it o Too fanatic – does not celebrate birthday, refused to be sculpted/painted, neglected his physical health Aristotle (Greek): “The Soul is the Essence of the self” - Soul has a set of defining features Soul and body are not separate entities ANYTHING WITH LIFE HAS SOUL Soul is the essence of all living things thus, soul is the essence of the self Humans differ from all living things because of the rational thinking THREE KINDS OF SOUL: (Vegetative, sentient, and rational) 1. Vegetative Soul includes physical body that can grow 2. Sentient Soul – includes sensual desires, feelings and emotions 3. Rational Soul – what makes a man human. includes intellect to know and understand The rational nature of self is to do good, to flourish and to fulfill life (self-actualization) The pursuit of happiness is to have a good life by doing virtuous actions Part of rational soul is characterized by moral virtues such as justice and courage Aurelius Augustinus “St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo” 354 – 430 CE (African): “The self has an immortal soul” - He is a saint of Catholic Church Latin father of the Church The most significant Christian thinker of St. Paul Religious Philosopher First Christian Theologian Integrates plato’s ideas of Bifurcated World and Christianity Physical body is different from immortal soul Thinks that the body is “spouse” of the soul, both attached to one another by “natural appetite” Body is united with soul so man is entire and complete Soul is very important because it governs and defines man His work: “Confessions” (book) 1. Human kind is created in the image and likeness of God 2. Everything created good is good so human is geared towards the good 3. Self is known through knowing God “Self-knowledge is the result of knowledge of God. 4. Significance of reflection, importance of prayer and confessions as justification for the existence of God 5. “Knowledge only come by seeing the truth that dwells with us” (the truth of knowing God) 6. God is transcendent (above all) 7. Self seeks to unite with God through faith and reason 8. Philosophical Principle “I am doubting, therefore I am” 9. Medieval Christian Doctrine and western Philosophy St. Thomas Aquinas 1225 – 1274 CE (Italian): “Self is both matter and form” - - Dominican Friar, Philosopher, Catholic Priest and Doctor of the Church Well-known 13th century scholar Strong philosopher of medieval philosophy Added something from the ideas of St. Augustine and adopted the ideas of Aristotle’s method of observation and three kinds of soul Man is composed of two parts: (Matter and Form) 1. Matter (Hyle) – “common things that make up things in the universe”, man’s body is a part 2. Form (Morphe) – “essence of a substance of thing”, what makes it what it is Human body is something he shares even to animals Human’s cells are similar to any other living things However, what makes a human person is the soul or essence Just like in the ideas of Aristotle and Aquinas, soul makes the body a human person Hylomorphism – The combination of matter and form to create physical objects Rene Descartes 1596 – 1650 CE (French): “No rational person will doubt his or her existence as a conscious thinking entity” - Philosopher, Mathematician, and Scientist Founder of Modern Philosophy Leader in 17th century scientific revolution Human ability to reason constitutes a definite path towards truth and knowledge He believes that beliefs he holds before were false Skeptic – a person who questions whether anything could be known with certainty How do we know that a thing is true? Answer: If it is no doubt that it is true. If you are doubting, then you exist at least as a thinking thing True KNOWLEDGE: “Cogito Ergo Sum” (I think, therefore I am) – Beliefs on radical doubt If I can be sure that I think – then I can be sure that I exist – Because there is something that does the thinking If you seek for the truth, doubting everything as possible “Identify examples of beliefs you’d been taught/raised with which you questioned for the purpose of developing your own independent conclusions” John Locke 1632– 1704 CE (England): - - Philosopher and Physician who explored Descartes’ epistemology (the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Epistemology is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.) and nature of self Skepticism – Rational Doubt (a skeptical attitude; doubt as to the truth of something) Rationalism – Reason (a belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response) Empiricism – Sense – Experience (the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience) He believed that we are born as a Tabula Rasa (blank slate) rejecting the concept of innate ideas (eg. Good/Bad) All of our knowledge comes to us through sensed data Consciousness is being aware that we are thinking and it is what makes possible our belief that we are the same identity in different times and different places. In other words, you have a concept of your Self as a Personal Identity because you are aware of yourself when you are thinking, feeling, and willing. And you have memories of times when you were aware of yourself in the past, in other situations David Hume 1711– 1776 CE, (Scotland): - Philosopher who believes that one can know only what comes from the senses and experiences. Argues that the Self is not an entity over and beyond the physical body. The Self is nothing else but a bundle of Impressions. Impressions – basic objects of our experience or sensation (touch, smell, etc). Vivid because of direct experiences. Ideas – copies of impressions that are not clear (feelings of love, hatred, disgust) Immanuel Kant 1724– 1804 CE, (German): - Opposed Hume’s argument of No Self. Believes that perceived experiences are not just randomly infused into the human person without an organizing principle There is necessarily a mind that organizes the impressions that men get from the external world (e.g. Time and Space) Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939, Austria): - Physician and Psychologist who founded Psychoanalysis. He synthesized the arguments of Plato, Descartes, Locke and Kant Proposed the Levels of Consciousness and the Structure of Personality (Province of the Mind) GILBERT RYLE The Self is How People Behave PAUL CHURCHLAND The Self is Our Brain MAURICE MERLEAU-PONTY The Self is the Embodied Subjectivity ...
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