Anth101 Anthroplogy All Exams F03

Anth101 Anthroplogy All Exams F03 - 'fitudyguide 1 Exam 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 'fitudyguide 1 Exam 1 — Anthro 101 Fall 2003 35. wags,§ri Ffllyfl flfipl 1 wn ' '9 9W ' - - ¢oh . at 15 evoluti 11. What is adaptationtp’bdur} o-Fw’oluhmaflj Mkfiq-hm W 2. Who is Stephen Jay Gould? PattohJDl 'lxi guwava .kqdufi Lead. rm (2“ 3041 , _ I _ ‘ mg Sp; Hydro bani 3. Who 13 Charles Darw1n?-jyupnggr daphéén 4. What is the history of Charl 5 Darwin prior to writing the ‘origin of Species?’% 1W m W HMS Maw) MW),PICS OP Ptmh {lemma-3‘ 5. What is ‘natural selection?’ How is it different from artificial selection? llwnnd—s on mdwiwd 6. How does natural selection produce adaptations? Give examples 7. Discuss Darwin's 3 major postulates (according to the author of your text) . Po mm: can MUM-m (1m! rthiWs (urwfiznfit. OWFWSW “WU- _ 8. What is tie difference between ontinuous variatiOn and discontinuousVuflqufifing variation?Di¢sm¥1—hnwdw mi ustn-HM wbiuhm 04F meiflwflmwmmgt‘J 9. What is DNA? RNA? Name the bases associated with each type. J. ' 10. What is protein synthesis? How does it work? What are mRNA and tRNA? 11. What is a gene? What is a chromosome?‘3UJD PaJHLM516 'WyvichaflfiGWHEhtsoFogafl 12. How many chromosomes do humans have? What is an alle e? 13. What are autosomes? What are the sex chromosomes? 14. What is diploid? What is haploid? 15. What are mitosis and meiosis? How do they each independently contribute to the process of evolution? 16. Who is Gregor Mendel? 17. What is the difference between ‘molecular genetics and mendelian genetics?’ 18. What is Mendel discover about inheritance that Darwin could not explain? ° 19. How did Mendel study and learn abOut principles of inheritance? 20. What two principles of inheritance did Mendel’s studies discover regarding how variation is preserved among parent to offspring? 21. What is a dominant trait? What is a recessive trait? 22. What does homozygous mean? What does heterozygous mean? 23. What is a genotype? What is a phenotype? 24. What is population genetics? How is it different than molecular What is a breeding isolate? What are some cultural breeding isolates in human behavior? 26. What is the function of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium formula? [::::1genetics? How is it different than mendelian genetics? 25. 27. What do the components of the formula stand for? p+q = 1 and p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 28. What assumptions does the HWE model make when no evolution is taking place? 29. Evolution and variation are influence by four primary forces: natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and gene drift. Explain the different influences of each. 30. What are the consequences of adaptation when the spontaneous mutation rate is too high or too low in a population? 31. What is directional selection? What is balancing selection? 32. What is founder’s effect? What is headman's effect? * The above questions relate to “t ' ” ' I OplCS that Will be cov r not exact questions that will a ear on the exam 6 ed on the exam- focus your readings and notes from the chapters I . They are This 15 a guide only to help you M, .studyguide 1 2003 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. * The above questions rel ' ate to “tepics" that will not exact Questions that will appear on the exam be coverEd on the exam. focus your readings and notes from the chapters Exam 1 — Anthro 101 Fall What are correlated characters? What are pleiotropic effects of a gene? What are the differences between genetic variation and environmental variation? What is a polymorphism? What is a balanced polymorphism? Why is sickle cell anemia considered a balanced polymorphic disorder? What favors the sickle cell gene in certain populations? What favors the lactose tolerance gene in certain populations What are the ABO blood group phenotypes and genotypes? What are the associated antigens and antibodies with ABC phenotypes? What factors may be affecting the worldwide distributions of ABO blood groups? Why do biological anthropologists believe the concept of “race classification" is flawed? What is the “parent-offspring” conflict? Why does it exist? Why are ‘aging’ and ‘death' considered potentially adaptive? What is the ‘antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis?’ I I I They are This 15 a gu1de only to help you t_________________f / Anthro 101 Fall 2003 Name ,_ EXAMl Part 1 True/False: 1. ii. 2. is- T '4. is. T 6. l7. T a. LL9- F 10 L11. T 12 F 13 _ 14 Mutations happen when they are needed for better adaptation. A trait that is coded for by more than one gene is called polymorphic. in a normal human somatic cell there are 46 chromosomes. The exchange of genes between populations is known as gene flow. - An autosome is an alternative expression of a trait that is found at the gene locus on a chromosome. Sickle cell anemia is acquired as a homozygous recessive genetic disorder. The fundamental source of all genetic change is mutation. The speed and frequency of somatic division varies among the different types of tissue cells. Protein synthesis occurs within the nucleus of the cell. In Central and Western Africa the distribution of the sickle cell allele is a good example of “directional” selection. The ABO blood group has 6 different phenotypes. The amount of human variation that potentially exists in 1,000 billion times larger than the number of people who have already inhabited the earth. Founder’s effect is an example of gene flow. Except for Darwin, Naturalists of the 184.05 and 18505 sought patterns instead of processes, in explaining evolution. Offspring from the same mother but a different father share a 50% chance that a gene carried in one child will also be passed to the other sibling. Part 2 Multiple Choice (20 pts): 16. According to the theory of natural selection: a. b. c. d. somatic mutations that occur during the lifetime of an ,individuai can be passed on to their offspring. ' any trait that confers a reproductive advantage Will be selected for. over half of all offspring born will show dominant traits. all traits in the parent population M” be passed on to their offspring- \l Part 5 True/False: 41. 4.2. h blank The disease that is resisted by possessing the heterozygous genotype for sickle~cell anemia is syphilis. Natural selection only applies to humans. An important assumption in the Hardy—Weinberg Equilibrium equation is that there is no random mating. Genetic drift causes isolated populations to be genetically distant from each other. E 4.5 Mitosis increase genetic variation. l 46 Although an ardent fan of Darwin, Stephen Jay Gould was intellectually opposed to the classic gradualist theory of Darwian evolution. F 47 Homozygous means having two different alleles in a pair. T 48 Type 0 blood can be injected into persons with blood types A, B, or O. _E__ 49 Stabilizing selection is when no more variation occurs in a population. 1‘” 50 There is no single natural classification scheme for racial categorization in the human species. BONUS: The circles (females) and squares (males) symbolize genealogical charts of inherited characteristics from parents to offspring. The darkened circles or squares represent traits that are expressed. 51. in the following chart what is the most likely genotype for both parents, if two of the offspring have expressed a recessive trait this is not phenotypic of the parents? a. homozygous dominant. b. homozygous recessive. c. heterozygous. d. a and/or c. 52. In the following chart, the father has expressed a recessive trait that is also found in one of the offspring daughters. What are the genotypes of the remaining siblings? sown homozygous dominant. homozygous recessive. heterozygous. a and/or c. in Name ‘—r~ — _ Introduction to Biological Anthropology Exam II Part 1 has 2. A shorthand device for showing the number of each kind of tooth in one quadrant of the jaw is called a dental formula. True/False “Alpha,” “beta,” and “gamma” refer to locations within a geographic area in which a primate social group lives- 3. A ring-tailed lemur is an anthropoid. 4. A hormonally initiated period of sexual receptivity in female nonhuman primates, correlated with ovulation, is called sexual dimorphism. 5. The sense of smell is most important for communication in prosimians. 6. Dominance hierarchies in primate males are found only in environments with abundant resources. 'i. K—selection reters to Species that produce large numbers 0: offspring and invest little to no parental care. 8. Female primates must be more sexually selective than males because their reproductive mistakes are most costly. 9. Most hominoids have longer hindlimbs than forelimbs. 10. 11. Apes compared to monkeys are generally larger and have no tail. 12fi7 Primate mothers must learn how to take care of their infants. 15?? Savanna—dwelling (grassland) primates have the largest repertoire of SPeCiallzed New gin-(ml (aw:th hale: trig“. w ‘J vocalizations. 5* 3"i Iii-9w loud, 14. The genus/species/subspecies name for the western lowland gorilla is Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla. 15. Dominance hierarchies in male primates may be initiated by the status of the male’s mother. \ Part 2 Multiple Choice (20 pts): 16. Which of the following is a hominoid (member of the superfamily Hominoidea)? a. chimpanzee. c. human. b. gorilla. d. all the above. 17. The Primate order is traditionally divided into 2 major suborders: a. Prosimians and Anthropoids. b. New World and Old World monkeys. c. Great and Lesser apes. d. non~human and human primates. bgé7 A species that is nocturnal will typically: )K' rely significantly more on sight. it be larger than diurnal Species. c. be a terrestrial quadruped. d. none of the above. 19. The typical form of locomotion for most prosimians is: a. quadrupedal branch running and walking. b. brachiation. c. vertical clinging and leaping. d. knuckle-walking. 20. Ancestral characters are: a. traits that aren't specialized. b. only generalized traits. c. traits that occur in the last common ancestor of a certain group of species. d more specialized than derived characters. 21. Which is NOT a potential advantage for primates to live in groups? a. improved access to food. c. improved access to sleeping sites. ib. reduces predator pressure. d. assistance in rearing offspring. 22. Which of the following primates would be found in the Family name Cal litr‘i chides? ,aa Orangutans. ht Douc Langurs. c. Pygmy marmosets. Ah Gorillas. 23. Folivore is a term that used to refer to: an animal that primarily eats insects. an animal that primarily eats leaves. an animal that primarily eats fruits, but supplement with meat. an animal that primarily eats unripe fruits. - example of the primfte adaptation toward ViSual acuity is: the reduction in size of facial structures related to the sense of repositioning of the ocular orbits from side to front of the skull. expansion and increased complexity of the cerebral carter. .11 - 4} all the above. 25. hich of the following anatomical areas is NOT one in which the evolutionary p has become m re generalized: f) ,3?“ brain. /’ c. diet. /b dentition. rd. letal structure. 26. Chest beating, pilo erection, sexual swelling, and facial patterns are all expressions 0F communication. )2. tactile. .. vocal. 6:; visual. gka olfactory. Zgéf Primate population size and potential social groupings are limited by: a. the accessible amount of food and water. b. the seasonal availability of resources. c. the number of prime sleeping places. d. all the above. 28 For the most part, primates have: a. a short period of infant dependence after birth. b. a long period of infant dependence after birth. c. a period of dependence after birth that only lasts until the infant can move arOund on its own. d. no period of dependence after birth whatsoever. 29. Lemurs only exist in the wild: q?. in Madagascar. . in South America. c. in Zaire. d. in South Africa. BOijas an order, Primates share: a. larger numbers of offspring in relation to other mammals. b. relatively large brains in relation to other mammals. more reliance on smell than other mammals. d. none of the above. 31. Unlike the biological species concept, the ecological species concept emphasizss the role of in new Species formation. a. mutation. c. migration. b. random genetic drift. d. natural selection. 33;??3ympatric speciation is based on: a. absence of gene flow 0. geographic isolation b. natural selection d. none of the above 33.. Allopatric speciation is based on: a. absence of gene flow b. natural selection c. a and b d. none of the above Aggressive encounters between primate groups typically occur in defense of: Q. females. b. core areas. L: . home ranges . d. territories. 35. Derived characters are: ,7. those that aren't specialized. . those that are significantly more complex than ancestral characters. c. traits that are distinct from those possessed by the last common ances r of a group of species. d. traits that distinguish similar species from each other. 36. Which of the following primates does NOT rely on olfactory communication: 2r? Loris. c. Golden Monkey. J97 Proboscis. [dc Lemur. 37. The in primates is frequently used as a tool, for defense and for gripping because it is particularly predominant in size compared to the other teeth. a. incisor. a c. premolar. b. canine. d. nmlar. 38. Only are found in both the Old World and the New World. a. prosimians. c. lesser apes. b. anthropoids. d. great apes. 39. he basic social unit among primates is: male and female. c. nmther and infant. - 5 b. siblings. d. solitary. 40. Vervet monkeys make specific vocalizations : a. to warn against predators. c. to greet neighboring troops. h. during social activities such as grooming. d. when locating food or water for the group. Part 3 Matching: List each of the following characteristics according to whether they are most commonly associated with being a diurnal or nocturnal primate. a. diurnaiity b. nocturnality 41. visual acuity 9 . “h group protection available A :2}. Li) c less competition among selves 44. grega“ious and g"oup oriented 45. less competition with birds 46. reduced p“edation 47. communicate by smell 48. less heat stress 49. more solitary 1 I) L: C competition With other mamm’is "I BONUS - 2 51. Genetic evidence indicates that the nonhuman primate most closely related to humans is: a. gorilla. c. orangutan. b. chimpanzee. d. baboon. Na me __ » Anthropology 101 Fall 2003 Part 1 Matching: 1' BlaCk Sku" m /a’ bony ridge on top of skull created by heavy chewing 2. Upper Paleolithic KNM-WT 15000 . . y used to increase the distance of a spear throw 3 sag'ttal cresr —-~ Kcultural period of distinction In W. Europe 4.. Na riokotome boy A. aethiopicus 5 atlatl 6- b'o'Strat'graPhy ——_ 1‘. measurement of the interior volume of the skull 7. cranial capacity __ y, oldowan tools 3 Carbon“ ,2.’ relative dating technique ' m j? half-life of 5730 years 9. ecofact __ y pollen samples 10. H. habilis Part 2 Multiple Choice: 11. The cranium of anatomically modern H. sapi'ens differs from that of H. habilis in that for H. sapiens the: a. cranial capacity is larger. c. the forehead is vertical. b. occipital region is rounded. d. all of the above 12. The earliest hominid tools that we have evidence for are made of: a. bone. c. wood. b. stone. d. antler. 13. A characteristic of many Asian H. erectus skullswas: a. extremely wide flaring of the cheekbones. b. forward projection of the jaw. c. pentagonal (five-sided) shape, with a sagittal keel. none of these. i \ 14. Members of the genus Australopithecus have been found in: a. Africa. . c. Southern France. b. Germany. d. all the above. 15. Critical evidence establishing the earliest evolved australopithecines as hominids is: a. long carnivorous canines. bk. cranial fragments suggesting brains larger than 1500 cc. c. pelvuc/lower limb evidence demonstrating that they were habitual bipeds. w an opposable big toe. 2 16. Which of the following hasflgl been proposed as an advantage of the evolution of bipedalism? a. a more efficient locomotion for running fast. b. elevating the head gives a better view. c. being upright helps keep the body cooler. d. provides the opportunity to carry things while walking. 17. Radiometric (absolute) dating techniques: a. are based on radioactive decay of isotopes. b. include the method cross~dating. c. were used to date early Australopithecine fossils in South Africa. d. all the above. 18. The current consensus among paleoanthropologists suggest that the earliest anatomically modern human (Homo sapiens sapiens) fossils are from: 3. Africa. c. China. b. Germany. d. Spain. 19. Which of the following species isflpl placed in the genus Homo? a . habilis. c. neandertalensis. b. ramidus. d. ergaster. 20. A cultural innovation fig]: present in the evidence of the U pper Paleolithic is: a. etched design on bone and antler. c. female figurines. b. cave paintings. d. clay-fired ceramic pottery. 21. The Upper Paleolithic is a hominid cultural period associated with: a. A. afarensis. c. K. platyops. b. H. erectus. d. H. saplens sapiens. 22. The origin of human-like language is believed to have evolved with: a. A. africanus c. H. erectus b. H. habih's d. H. sapiens neanderralensis 23. The major distinction between the “successful” evolutionary outcomes of hominoids and hominids is: a. hominids ability to make tools. b. hominids ability to become hunters. c. hominids ability to acquire a language. d. hominids transition to bipedal locomotion. 24.. The species of hominid referred to as ‘hyper-robust‘ is (are): a. 'A. ramidus. c. P. robustus. b. A. afarensis and A. africanus. d. H. ergaster. 25. Fossils with fully anatomically modern human traits (H.s.s.) first appear: a. 1 million years ago. c. 300,000 years ago. b. 500,000 years ago. d. 120,000 years ago. 26. The direct evidence of bipedal locomotion, found in the form of footprints cast in volcanic ash at Laetoii, Tanzania, was discovered by: a. Mary Lea key. Richard Leakey. b. Louis Leakey. Raymond Dart. an 27. The earliest evidence for controlled use of fire is associated with: a. H. habih's. c. H. sapiens neandertalensis. b. H. erectus. d. H. sapi'ens sapiens. 28. The period of the Ice Ages, glacial advances and retreats, is known as the: a. Pleistocene. c. Neolithic. b. Jurassic. d. Upper Paleolithic. 29. Which of the following is associated with the Neandertal culture: a. care of the elderly and injured. b. social cooperation and hunting. c. burial of the dead. d. all the above. 30. What scarce savanna resource(s) might Homo erectus have been most in search of in their motivation to migrate and spread out of Africa? a. roots and tubers plant foods. c. volcanic rocks for tool making. b. wood for spears. d. water and animal protein. Part 3 True/False : 31. The supra orbital torus refers to he substrate surrounding a discovered artifact. him/HM ' i) _ 32. It has been suggested that Wmis may have evolved directly into Austraiopithecus aethiopicus. “ ___33. Fossil evidence representing both boisei and Homo habih‘s were discovered in strata from the same time period In East Africa at Olduvai Gorge. ______34. Radioca rbon dating can be applied to dates over 60,000 years old. ____35. An archaeological dating technique that gives an estimate in actual number of years is called relative dating. 36. The split between hominids and apes took place in Asia. _37. A grid system is often used at the excavation of a fossil to record the vertical and horizontai relationships of associated artifacts. 38. “Mrs Pies” and the “Taung” child are fossil members representing Homo rudoifensis. 39. An endocast represents the precise 3-D iocation of a fossil. 40. The advance of the Pleistocene glaciers had the effect of reducing the diversity of the world’s climatic zones. Part 4. Name the Hominid: 41. This member of the genus Homo iikely lived alongside AustraIOpithecines of severai species between 2.4 and 1.5 million yea rs ago. Average cranial capacity is between 510—775 cc. The first primitive stone tools were found in association with this species at Olduvai Gorge. a. Ardipithecus afa rensis d. Homo erectus b. ' Austraiopithecus africanus e. Homo sapiens neandertaiensis c. Homo habil'is 43. 4s- 47. 4. The oldest known hominid, intermediate between ape and human, is dated at 4.14 million years and was discovered in East Africa in 1994. Indirect evidence suggests that it was pOSSibly bipedal With a foramen magnum positioned at the base of the skull, although still having arboreal-dwelling characteristics of the forelimb that would make it a forest dweller. a. Ardipithecus rami'dus d. Homo erectus _ b. Australopithecus afrlcanus e. Homo sapiens sapiens ' c Paranthropus robustus This species existed between 2.5 and 2.3 million years ago. This species is known from one major specimen, the “Black Skull” discovered by Alan Walker in 1985.1t may be an intermediary form in adaptive sequence of early robust hominids. The brain size is very small at 410 cc. a. Ardipithecus rami'dus d. Homo habili's b. Australopithecus afarensi's e. Homo erectus c Paranthropus aethiopicus This species may very well represent a terminal side branch of hominid evolution prior to the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. They had a large brain, average 14.50 cc, sli htly larger and stronger than modern humans. The shape of the skull is long and low with a high- ridged nasal aperture and a large long face. The tools they made are called the "Mousterian tradition." a. Austraiopithecus africanus d. Homo sapiens neandertaiensis b. Paranthropus robustus e. . Homo sapiens sapiens c Homo habiii‘s Between 2 and 3 million years ago, this specimen appeared. The main fossil for this species is the "Taung baby" found in South Africa and named by Raymond Dart in 1924” It consists of almost a full skull, the skull of an infant. a. Austraiopithecus afarensis d. Homo sapiens neandertalensis b. Australopithecus afri'canus e. Homo sapiens sapi‘ens c Paranthropus aethi'opicus The earliest known species of the australopithecine genus is also a very recent discovery, being named in 1995. It is dated to around 4.2 million years old, showing a very humanlike tibia, fibula, and humerus, although having a small and ape-like cranium. a. Ardipithecus ramidus d. Homo erectus b. Austraiopithecus anamensis e. Homo sapiens sapi'ens c. Australopi‘thecus a farensi's Some of the most famous early archaeological finds were skeletal remains such as "Java Man“, the "Heidelberg Man", the "Peking Man", and the "Nariokotome Boy. " The face has no chin, thick brow ridges, and a brain size ranging from 750 to 1225 cc. This species likely had a very efficient walking style, and was likely the first hominid to spread across the world. a Australopi'thecus afarensis d. Homo sapiens neandertai'ensis b. Australopi'thecus afri'canus e. Homo sapiens sapiens c Homo erectus The most well known member of the species was named ‘Lucy.” Dated to between 3.9-3 million years ago, these hominids walked upright - disputing the previous notion that a large brain preceded the adaptation and development of bipedalism. a. Austraiopi'thecus afarensi's d. Homo habiii's b. Australopithecus africanus e. Homo erectus c. Paranthropus boisei' 49. Modern forms of this hominid first appear about 120,000 years ago in Africa. With an average brain size of about 1350 cc, the forehead rises sharply, eyebrow ridges are very small or more usually absent, and the shape of the skull is well rounded. Cultural materials such as the spear thrower, atlatl, and bow and arrow suggest the potential for large organized hunting parties. Tool kits are more sophisticated, using a wider variety of raw materials such as bone, ivory and antler. a. Australopithecus afarensis d. Homo sapiens neandertalensis b. Austraiopithecus afri'canus e. Homo sapiens sapr'ens c. Homo erectus 50. Once known as Zinjanthropus, this hominid existed between 2.1 and 1.1 million years ago. The head is massive with wide zygornatics giving the appearance ofa diamond-shaped face. The cheek teeth are large and strong with some molars being up to 2 cm across. a. Austraolpithecus anamensis d. Homo habilis b. Austraiopithecus afri'canus e. Homo erectus c. Paranthropus boisei‘ Part 5 Extra credit — (*3 pts): +51. According to the Recent African Origin Model of human evolution, the population should display the greatest degree of genetic diversity com pa red to other populations living around the world today. a. European. c. African. b. Asian. d. Native American. ...
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This homework help was uploaded on 02/13/2008 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '03 term at San Diego State.

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Anth101 Anthroplogy All Exams F03 - 'fitudyguide 1 Exam 1...

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