Comm103 s07 FinalReviewSheet - COMM 103 Final Review Sheet...

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COMM 103 Final Review Sheet Chapter 4 1. Know the definition of language a. Language- A verbal symbol system that allows us to take messages and  utterances, in the form of words, and translate them into meaning 2. Know what a symbol, reference, and referent is a. Symbol- a sign or word used to define a person, idea, or object b. Reference- thoughts about observed objects c. Referent- the thing to which a symbol refers 3. Understand the difference between signifier and signified and how each is  different from symbol and referent (hint: signifier and signified implies an entire  symbol system) a. Signifier- word or symbol that we associate with an object or phenomenon b. Signified- object or phenomenon that is represented by a word or symbol 4. Know the following terms, concepts, and theories: a. Connotative meaning - the personal associations people make for a symbol b. Denotative meaning - the “dictionary” or objective meaning people give to  a symbol c. Constitutive rules - rules to help sort out the meaning of words or phrases d. Regulative rules - rules that guide a response e. Grice’s Cooperative Principles f. Muted Group Theory* g. Speech Code Theory* h. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis- theory that language determines what we see in  the world and how we think i. Social Constructionism - theory that language creates our perceptions of  reality and the mode of our relational interactions j. Hayakawa’s Ladder of Abstraction - a description of language on a  continuum from very concrete to the abstract k. Indexing - using language that places an issue, event, or person in a  specific time or context l. You-Messages - statement that labels another person and involves some  evaluation of that person’s behavior  m. I-Messages- statement that labels the speaker’s own behavior 5. Understand the  gender-as-culture perspective on language a. The language we use may perpetuate negative stereotypes and demeaning  Not in textbook, only in lecture
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attitudes about certain classes of people.  To avoid this: i. Describe individuals and groups at an appropriate level of precision ii. Be aware of labels iii. Avoid labeling people iv. Avoid using one group as a standard against which others are  judged 6. Know what a language community is and how it might be a challenge to  competence language use a. Language community - group of people who have developed a common set  of constitutive and regulative rules which guide the meaning of words and  appropriate reactions to them i. Jargon may be incomprehensible to those outside ii. Jargon may be interpreted language in ways other than intended 7. Know the following examples of language communities: i. Teamsters* ii.
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