Lecture 10 - Asiatic Cholera (II): Five Pandemics Tuesday, March 17, 2015 4:07 PM Asiatic Cholera as an Emerging Disease in the West 1990s, Joseph Lederer used term "emerging diseases' to describe infectious diseases there were unknown as sources of human infection but now are o Ebola\Lyme Disease\SARS\HIV-AIDS Press often views new diseases as something that had never occurred before, historical amnesia o Microbes constantly evolve, mutate frequently\short life of microbial generation compared to a human one New diseases always appearing\emerging Asiatic cholera is an "emerging disease" although it was not called that at the time Debate if it had existed on Indian subcontinent before\how long before o Existed in India by 19th century, generally in Ganges delta\Brahmaputra Rivers Writings in the area indicate disease existed before but by 19th century was endemic in region Unknown elsewhere in the world until 1817 epidemic leaves India, reaches Europe in 1830 o Cholera in 19th century= new\not experienced before, explains reaction to populations that were first afflicted by it, called "great cholera" Most feared disease of 19th century but not the greatest killer a the time Feared for many reasons Sudden appearance Exotic\unfamiliar character Agonizing\gruesome nature of symptoms High case fatality Predilection for adults in the prime of life not children Much of the discussion around it addressed if it was the plague reborn\returned Reflected in names given to it, shows fear 19th century, era of social tension, revolution, rebellious century o Revolutions in 1830, 1848-1849, 50 revolution in two years Italian independence, Paris Commune o Cholera followed these events, heightened social\political tensions Outbreak of revolution\war\disorder created conditions which cholera loved Others claimed the condition chain worked the other way (disease led to disorder) but this has been disproven Cholera followed revolution, not a trigger Dramatic but not lasting influence on history of the West Led to short term chaos but nowhere near as influential\dangerous as plague\smallpox Cholera Pandemics Seven pandemics of this disease o First: 1817-1823=Asian event o Second: 1830s, affected Asia\Europe\North America o Third: 1846-1862 affected Asia\Europe\North America
o Fourth: 1865-1875, affected the globe o Fifth: 1881-1896, Asian\European event o Sixth: 1960 to present, affected Asia\South America\Africa Most recent pandemic milder\less virulent New biotype, El Tor, less fatal\less dramatic than classical cholera (pandemics 1-5) Arose in Indian subcontinent\Ganges\Brahmaputra rivers and stayed there until developments allowed it to leave o Bacterium that causes illness very delicate\travels poorly, required factors that allowed it to spread Colonialism, large scale troop movements, more contact between subcontinent\outside world Increase in trade Transport revolution, railroad\steamship\Suez Canal cuts down on
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- Spring '10