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106L06_Notes - Introduction Introduction to Neuroscience...

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1 Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 6: Synaptic Transmission Reading Assignment: Bear et al., Chapter 5. CBNS 106 2 Introduction Synaptic Transmission The process of information transfer at a synapse Plays role in all the operations of the nervous system 1897: Charles Sherrington- “synapse” Chemical and electrical synapses • 1921- Otto Loewi • 1959- Furshpan and Potter CBNS 106 3 Types of Synapses • Direction of Information Flow In one direction: Neuron to target cell First neuron = Presynaptic neuron Target cell = Postsynaptic neuron CBNS 106 4 • Electrical Synapses Gap junction • Channel Connexon- formed by six connexins Cells are said to be “electrically coupled” • Flow of ions from cytoplasm to cytoplasm Types of Synapses
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2 CBNS 106 5 Types of Synapses • Electrical Synapses (Cont’d) Very fast transmission • Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) Synaptic integration: Several PSPs occurring simultaneously to excite a neuron (i.e. causes AP) CBNS 106 6 Types of Synapses • Chemical Synapses CBNS 106 7 • CNS Synapses (Examples) Axodendritic: Axon to dendrite Axosomatic: Axon to cell body Axoaxonic: Axon to axon Dendrodendritic: Dendrite to dendrite Gray’s Type I: Asymmetrical, excitatory Gray’s Type II: Symmetrical, inhibitory Types of Synapses CBNS 106 8 The Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) Studies of NMJ established principles of synaptic transmission High clinical relevance Types of Synapses
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3 CBNS 106 9 Principles of Chemical Synaptic Transmission Basic Steps Neurotransmitter synthesis Load neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles Vesicles fuse to presynaptic terminal Neurotransmitter spills into synaptic cleft Binds to postsynaptic receptors Biochemical/Electrical response elicited in postsynaptic cell Removal of neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft CBNS 106 10 • Neurotransmitters
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