106L13_notes - Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 13:...

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1 Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 13: Neurotransmitter Systems Reading Assignment: Bear et al., Ch. 6 & Ch. 15 (pp. 498-507) CBNS 106 2 Introduction • Three classes of neurotransmitters – Amino acids, amines, and peptides • Many different neurotransmitters • Defining particular transmitter systems – By the molecule, synthetic machinery, packaging, reuptake and degradation, etc. • Acetylcholine (Ach) First identified neurotransmitter • Nomenclature (-ergic) – Cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic, etc
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2 CBNS 106 3 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Neurotransmitter - three criteria – Synthesis and storage in presynaptic neuron – Released by presynaptic axon terminal – Produces response in postsynaptic cell • Mimics response produced by release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron CBNS 106 4 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Transmitter Localization – Transmitters and Transmitter- Synthesizing Enzymes • Immunocytochemistry – localize molecules to cells
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3 CBNS 106 5 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Transmitter Localization – Transmitters and Transmitter- Synthesizing Enzymes • Immunocytochemistry – localize molecules to cells CBNS 106 6 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Transmitter Localization (Cont’d) In situ hybridization – Localize synthesis of protein or peptide to a cell (detect mRNA)
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4 CBNS 106 7 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Transmitter Release – Transmitter candidate: Synthesized and localized in terminal and released upon stimulation – CNS contains a diverse mixture of synapses that use different neurotransmitters – Brain slice as a model • Kept alive in vitro Stimulate synapses, collect and measure released chemicals CBNS 106 8 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Synaptic Mimicry – Qualifying condition: Molecules evoking same response as neurotransmitters – Microionophoresis: Assess the postsynaptic actions – Molecular uncaging through UV photolysis. Laser Uncaging is temporally and spatially precise method of releasing active neurotransmitter. • 1. Biological material is flooded with inactive “caged” neurotransmitter • 2. Focused laser cleaves a bond between the transmitter and a cage. – Microelectrode: Measures effects on membrane potential
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5 CBNS 106 9 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Receptors – Neuropharmacology • Agonists and antagonists • E.g., ACh receptors – Nicotinic, Muscarinic • Glutamate receptors – AMPA, NMDA, and kainite CBNS 106 10 Studying Neurotransmitter Systems • Studying Receptors (Cont’d) – Ligand-binding methods • Identify natural receptors using radioactive ligands • Can be: Agonist, antagonist, or chemical neurotransmitter
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course CBNS 106 taught by Professor Korzus during the Winter '08 term at UC Riverside.

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106L13_notes - Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 13:...

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