106L15_Notes - 1 Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 15:...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 15: The Neuroscience of Language Reading Assignment: Bear et al., Ch. 20 CBNS 106 2 Introduction Language System by which sounds, symbols, and gestures used for communication Process Language comes into brain through visual and auditory systems Motor system: Produces speech, writing Processing between sensory and motor systems; Essence of language 2 CBNS 106 3 The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain Aphasia Partial/complete loss of language abilities following brain damage Greek/Roman Empires: Tongue control speech Sixteenth century: Speech impairment, tongue not affected 1770: Johann Gesner, brain damage 1825: Jean-Baptist Bouillard, frontal lobes 1861: Cortical area in frontal lobe CBNS 106 4 Brocas area Paul Broca in 1864: Region of dominant left frontal lobe, articulate speech Dominant: Heavily involved in particular task Wada procedure: Anesthetize single hemisphere The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain. 3 CBNS 106 5 Brocas area Paul Broca in 1864: Region of dominant left frontal lobe, articulate speech Dominant: Heavily involved in particular task Wada procedure: Anesthetize single hemisphere The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain. CBNS 106 6 Wernickes area Karl Wernicke in 1874: Superior surface of temporal lobe between auditory cortex and angular gyrus, lesions disrupt normal speech The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain. 4 CBNS 106 7 Studying the relationship between language and the brain Correlate functional deficits with lesions Types of Aphasia Brocas Aphasia (motor, nonfluent aphasia) Difficulty speaking, but understand spoken/heard language Paraphasic errors Pause to search for words, repeat overlearned things, difficulty repeating words The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain CBNS 106 8 Types of Aphasia (Contd) Wernickes aphasia Speech fluent, comprehension poor Howard Gardner case study Strange mixture of clarity and gibberish Correct sounds, incorrect sequence Comprehension difficult to assess Playing music, writing similar Location of Wernickes area - clues The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain 5 CBNS 106 9 Wernicke Aphasia Storing memories of sounds that make up words Symptoms: Mixture of clarity and gibberish, undisturbed by sound of own or others speech Characteristics: Correct words in incorrect sequence, incorrect word similar to correct...
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106L15_Notes - 1 Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 15:...

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