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106L15_Notes - Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 15 The...

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1 Introduction to Neuroscience Lecture 15: The Neuroscience of Language Reading Assignment: Bear et al., Ch. 20 CBNS 106 2 Introduction • Language System by which sounds, symbols, and gestures used for communication – Process • Language comes into brain through visual and auditory systems • Motor system: Produces speech, writing • Processing between sensory and motor systems; Essence of language
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2 CBNS 106 3 The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain • Aphasia Partial/complete loss of language abilities following brain damage Greek/Roman Empires: Tongue control speech Sixteenth century: Speech impairment, tongue not affected 1770: Johann Gesner, brain damage 1825: Jean-Baptist Bouillard, frontal lobes 1861: Cortical area in frontal lobe CBNS 106 4 Broca’s area • Paul Broca in 1864: Region of dominant left frontal lobe, articulate speech Dominant: Heavily involved in particular task Wada procedure: Anesthetize single hemisphere The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain.
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3 CBNS 106 5 Broca’s area • Paul Broca in 1864: Region of dominant left frontal lobe, articulate speech Dominant: Heavily involved in particular task Wada procedure: Anesthetize single hemisphere The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain. CBNS 106 6 Wernicke’s area • Karl Wernicke in 1874: Superior surface of temporal lobe between auditory cortex and angular gyrus, lesions disrupt normal speech The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain.
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4 CBNS 106 7 • Studying the relationship between language and the brain Correlate functional deficits with lesions • Types of Aphasia Broca’s Aphasia (motor, nonfluent aphasia) • Difficulty speaking, but understand spoken/heard language • Paraphasic errors • Pause to search for words, repeat “overlearned” things, difficulty repeating words The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain CBNS 106 8 Types of Aphasia (Cont’d) Wernicke’s aphasia Speech fluent, comprehension poor Howard Gardner case study • Strange mixture of clarity and gibberish • Correct sounds, incorrect sequence • Comprehension difficult to assess • Playing music, writing similar Location of Wernicke’s area - clues The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brain
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5 CBNS 106 9 Wernicke’ Aphasia Storing memories of sounds that make up words Symptoms: Mixture of clarity and gibberish, undisturbed by sound of own or other’s speech Characteristics: Correct words in incorrect sequence, incorrect word similar to correct word The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas
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