Role of Taverns in Colonial cities-
Taverns acted as public houses where men gathered to eat, drink, smoke, socialize and hear news.
They were also centers for politics, business
transactions, distribution of pamphlets, and delivery of mail.
As numbers of taverns and people increased, some taverns began to cater to certain
In most cities it was considered improper for women to drink in a tavern.
Free blacks in early/mid 19
Post revolution- many African American slaves obtained their freedom and relocated to cities in large numbers.
Cities became centers of opportunity
for blacks in terms of marriage, family, education, church, schools and social groups.
Some men worked as mariners or artisans, but most were
unskilled labor, while most women were domestic servants, produce sellers, or prostitutes.
Blacks moved to establish themselves as a distinguished
group and worked to gain political power in some cities.
As this free black population grew, so did social conflict as whites used legislation to limit
the rights of free blacks.
Zoning became principal activity of planning commissions in 1920’s.
It identified patterns of land use, traffic, health, lighting, utilities, and other
aspects of urban environment.
Good for systematic land use, but could not solve all problems of city life such as poor housing, crime, or quality of
Initial zoning separated uses and led to homogenous land use patterns.
Frederick Law Olmsted
(1822 - 1903) - Known as the founder of American Landscape Architecture. Born in Hartford Connecticut, he never fully attended college but was a
very learned man. His start to landscape architecture began when he was appointed as the Supernintendent for Central Park in New York City. He
also served as the Executive Secretary of United States Sanitary Commission to aid the soldiers during the Civil War. Some of his notable works
include Niagra Reservation, the Emerald Necklace (Boston), and the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago.
1901 Tenement House Act
A breakthrough tenement reform bill. Set new standards for light, ventilation ,and toilet facilities. Also required older buildings to improve living
Emerged from the work of Lawrence Veiller
El (Elevated railways)
A strategy undertaken by some of the more congested American cities by which elevated tracks were constructed to give unrestricted right of way to
While NYC had a steam-powered El in the 1870s, it was Frank Sprague’s invention and application of electrical power that allowed the el to
The canal was constructed between 1817 and 1825 and linked the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. This in turn provided for a growth in western
markets and brought more business to New York City. The construction of the canal sparked actions from Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston in
constructing their own transportation lines that stretched westward. One of the final results where the Baltimore, Ohio, and Pennsylvania railroads.