Review Sheet Test 2

Review Sheet Test 2 - Review for Test II Historical Roots...

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Review for Test II Historical Roots of Israel’s Monarchy Constant threat from Philistines, the "Sea People," who were better organized and had superior weapons (heavy infantry and well-armed foot soldiers) In order to survive, Israel needed a trained standing army; required a centralized government with the king as a national leader Positive Views of Monarchy Samuel: a local seer; appoints Saul as a "prince" under God's direct guidance Saul and his early accomplishments are presented favorably, esp. his defeat of the Ammonites and he will save Israel from the Philistines and other enemies Negative View of Monarchy Samuel: the greatest judge of Israel Monarchy represents a rejection of God's kingly rule which stems from people's failure to trust God. It will bring many hardships, such as taxation, military obligation, and tyranny Saul – Major Achievements A tall, handsome young man from the tribe of Benjamin Won initial victory over Ammonites, which led to his appointment as a king at Gilgal Functioned more as a perpetual judge than as a king and had headquarters at Gibeah Formed his own private army Tried but did not succeed to establish the centralized government – his main responsibility was military leadership, not internal affairs Didn't have personal charisma like David and eventually lost the popular support Was rejected by God for a seemingly minor sin (1 Sam 13:7-15) Suffered from deep depression, thus took his own life on the battlefield on Mount Gilboa Conclusion: This is a tragic story of a heroic leader who lived in the transitional period between the collapse of the old tribal confederacy and the birth of monarchy David – Major Achievements Shepherd anointed by Samuel and favored by God Characterized by personal charm, gallantry, and success Brought to Saul’s court to entertain him as a harp player, defeated the giant Goliath Was loved by Saul’s children: Jonathan and Michal and had to flee away from Saul’s jealousy and murderous intentions Lived in the south among the Philistines as a leader of a band of outlaws Ingratiated himself with the Judeans by protecting landholders from robbers and sharing the spoil with them. After Saul’s death at Mount Gilboa, David was made the king of Judah at Hebron: Ruled at Hebron for 7 years Civil war between Judah (ruled by David) and the northern tribes (ruled by Ishbaal/Ishbosheth) Was declared the king of all twelve tribes at Hebron; Organized Israel’s tribes into a centralized state Captured Jerusalem and made it a capital of Israel; brought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem Expanded Israel’s borders and thus fulfilled God’s promise to Abraham (Gen 15:18-21) Made commercial treaties with the Phoenician king, Hiram of Tyre 1
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Took a census of all Israel as a basis for military duty, taxation, and forced labor (2 Sam 20:24) God’s Covenant with David
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