Anthropology Review - Anthropology Review Kottak: Chapter...

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Anthropology Review Kottak : Chapter 11- Making a Living Yehudi Cohen (1974) used the term adaptive strategy to describe a society’s system of economic production. Cohen developed a typology of societies based on correlations between their economies and their social features. In Cohen’s typology, the adaptive strategies based on food production in nonindustrial societies are horticulture, agriculture and pastoralism. His typology includes these five adaptive strategies: Foraging Horticulture Agriculture Pastoralism Industrialism Foraging: Until 10,000 years ago all humans were foragers Foragers have been described as “the original affluent society” Compared to them the following is true for societies based on agriculture: property distinctions become important Despite differences caused by environmental variations, all foraging economies have shared one essential feature: people relying on nature to make their living. Horticulture: Horticulture and agriculture are two types of cultivation found in nonindustrial societies. Horticulture is the cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital and machinery. Use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks to grow their crops.
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Often involves slash-and-burning techniques: clear land by cutting down (slashing) and burning forest or bush or by setting fire to the grass covering the plot. Because the relationship between people and land is not permanent, horticulture also is called shifting cultivation Agriculture: Agriculture requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land intensively and continuously. The greater labor demands associated with agriculture reflects its use of domesticated animals, irrigation or terracing. Domesticated animals are used as a means of production-for transport, as cultivating machines and for their manure. Irrigation- while horticulturalists must await the rainy season, agriculturist can schedule their planting in advance because they control the water Terracing- another agriculture technique where farmers cut into the hillside and build stage after stage of terraced fields rising about the valley floor. Pastoralists: These herders are people whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, and reindeer. Many herders live in symbiosis with their herds. Herders attempt to protect their animals and to ensure their reproduction in return for food and other products, such as leather. Hers provide dairy products and meat. Typically use their herds for food. They consume their meet, blood and mile from which they make yogurt, butter and cheese. It is impossible to base subsistence solely on animals; therefore, herders
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course ANTHRO 101 taught by Professor Peters during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Anthropology Review - Anthropology Review Kottak: Chapter...

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