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phil midterm - What are the three definitions of virtue...

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What are the three definitions of virtue considered in the Meno, and what is Plato’s reason for rejecting all three? Virtue is moral characteristics: honesty, loyalty, patience Being good at what you do Rule over people Have the power to acquire what is good Having the ability to acquire something good justly Rejection on the basis that Meno is only offering a list of virtues without saying what virtue is. What is Meno’s paradox, and what is Plato’s proposed solution to it? Paradox: It’s not my fault I can’t find the definition of virtue- in order to know if the definition of virtue is accurate you need to know what virtue is. You can’t define something without knowing it first. Solution: We are remembering from the past reincarnation soul becomes attached to different bodies Plato at first accepts and then later rejects the view that virtue is acquired by teaching. Elaborate. “If virtue is a form of knowledge than it can be acquired from teaching” Virtue is acquired by teaching: Innately Teaching Practice Virtue is a form of knowledge, and if virtue is teachable there must be teachers of virtue Socrates argues there are no teachers of virtue, conclusion: virtue can’t be taught What is Plato’s account of knowledge in the Phaedo? “Knowledge involves the apprehension of the forms”, true knowledge is apprehending the forms achieved through dialectic according to Plato, and philosophy is an attempt to know the forms. What is Plato’s proof that the soul exists after death? The soul exists before birth and after death thus the soul always exists The soul must gain knowledge before birth because you can’t gain knowledge in this life but he leaves out “at birth” because “I would gain or lose knowledge at the same time” Outline Plato’s three proofs for the existence of the soul before birth. The doctrine of the opposites Uneducated servant boy from the Meno analogy reincarnation We must have previous knowledge of perfection and equality and you can’t know it in this life, so your soul must have apprehended perfect equality before birth. Doctrine of the forms The soul must have existed before it became attached to a body in order to apprehend the Form of perfect equality Outline one of Plato’s two proofs of immortality in the Phaedo Just as the forms are invisible, the soul is invisible. The forms being invisible are also simple, and hence indestructible. Since the soul is like the Forms in respect of being invisible, are also simple, and hence indestructible. Since the soul is like the form in respect to being invisible, it is likely that the soul is also simple and hence indestructible.
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2 What are the four definitions of justice discussed in Book I of the Republic and why does Plato reject them?
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