Lecture 2--final

Lecture 2--final - Lecture 2: The Nature of Science JLS 280...

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    Lecture 2: The Nature  of Science JLS 280 Spring, 2008 Gia Barboza
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    https://www.ichapters.com/tl1/en/US/storefron catProductDetail&ISBN=0495094765
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    How We Use These Knowledges and  Why It Matters In essence, we are ametuer social scientists going around making decisions based on our experiential and agreement reality Cause and effect relationships Decisions Quick judgments with little data and without much thought or consideration Note, this has great usefulness to our daily lives
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    ELMO Convicted Adults Pretrial Adults Juveniles Success 81% 73% 99% Rule Violation 14 13 1 Abscond 5 14 0
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    ELMO Convicted Adults Pretrial Adults Juveniles New Arrest 5% 1% 11% Successful Calls 53 52 17
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    What is research methods about? Research methods focuses on how we know what we know Two realities Experiential Agreement
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    Knowledge Used to Understand the World Two ways in which we learn about the world Experiential Reality The body of knowledge we have that is based on our own experience Example: you know that if you touch a hot frying pan you will get burned This kind of reality is based on your direct experience or observations with fire Agreement Reality The body of knowledge we have that is based on what we have been told or what we have learned through norms and traditions rather than through direct experience If you go under water for a number of minutes you will drown You do not need to personally experience this reality in order to accept it Example: preventative police patrol Does increasing the number of police officers on patrol reduce crime?
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    Problems With Making Predictions  Based on Our Personal Realities Both types of realities are error-prone Experiential reality – what if our experience is limited or lacking Agreement reality – should we rely on what we learn from television? Example : Our agreement reality about the current crime problem based on what we see on t.v. might be that crime is on the rise and has become more violent in recent years.
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    Personal Human Inquiry Everyday personal inquiry draws on personal experience and secondhand authority Future circumstances are caused or conditioned by present ones Patterns of cause and effect are probabilistic Role of science Two important sources of secondhand knowledge Tradition Authority
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  Sources of Agreement Realities Tradition Cultural norms regarding how the world works Advantages/Disadvantages Authority Knowledge obtained via experts Criminal justice authorities provide agreement reality about crime problems and solutions Medical doctors tell us what is health for us to eat Advantages/Disadvantages Too quickly accepting research results Example : Arrest and Domestic Violence What contributed to the rapid adoption in arrest policies? What happened with replication studies?
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course JLS 280 taught by Professor Barboza during the Spring '08 term at American.

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Lecture 2--final - Lecture 2: The Nature of Science JLS 280...

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