Care, Partiality, Induction

Care, Partiality, Induction - Handout Phil 104 sec 2-12...

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Handout Feb 27, 2008 Phil 104 sec 2-12 page 1 The Care Perspective: Induction and Partiality I Kohlberg and Gilligan on Moral Development II Characteristics of Kantian Ethics III Using the Care Perspective: A) examples: 1) response to Heinz-dilemma 2) response to the moles and the porcupine IVA) Logic and Ethics: Is ethical argument inductive or deductive? IVB) Partiality and Universality I Gilligan on Moral development Carol Gilligan is a developmental psychologist who has had enormous influence in philosophical ethical theory, especially feminist ethical theory. Let us begin by discussing the background of her theorizing and some aspects of her account of moral thinking, and then go on to discuss the philosophical applications of her approach. Gilligan was a student of Kohlberg, an educational psychologist at Harvard. Kohlberg, following Piaget’s conceptions of child development, proposed a theory of moral development. That is, just as other psychologists proposed theories of other kinds of skills, so Kohlberg’s theory was an account of how the craft of moral behavior went through successive stages. A “stage” theory of development views that acquisition of a skill as a series of plateaus. A baby goes through a long period of crawling, then fairly suddenly learns to walk, and walks from then on. Kohlberg proposed six stages of the development of moral knowledge: Kohlberg’s six moral stages are divided into three levels: Level I Preconventional: Stage 1: Egocentric what is right = avoid breaking rules The reason for doing right = avoid punishment The social perspective = egocentric point of view Stage 2: Individualism, Instrumental purpose and Exchange; what is right: follow rules when it pays, contracts; reason for doing right: serve one’s needs; social perspective: everyone has their own interests Level II Conventional Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and interpersonal conformity what is right: live up to expectations; reason for doing right: be a good person in your own eyes, caring for others, Golden Rule; social perspective: aware of shared feelings, relationships, putting yourself in the other guy's shoes Stage 4: Social System and Conscience: what is right: fulfilling duties you have agreed to; reason for doing right: keep institution going; social perspective: takes point of view of system Level III Post-Conventional or Principled Stage 5: Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights; what is right: values are relative to a group, life liberty absolute, impartiality; reason for doing right: sense of obligation to law by social contract, social perspective: rational individual aware of values and rights prior to social attachments
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Handout Feb 27, 2008 Phil 104 sec 2-12 page 2 Stage 6: UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES: (Kantianism): what is right: follow self - chosen ethical principles; reason for doing right: belief as a rational person in the validity of universal principle; social perspective: rational individual recognizing that persons are ends in themselves
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PHIL 104 taught by Professor Bontly during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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Care, Partiality, Induction - Handout Phil 104 sec 2-12...

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