ch04 (1) - Exam N ame 1 W hich one of the follow ing is A...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam N ame___________________________________ 1) W hich one of the follow ing is A) neural tissue B) osseous tissue C) epithelial tissue D) muscle tissue E) connective tissue one of the four main tissue categories? 1) 2) The tissue that al ways has a "top" and a "bottom" is A) epithelial tissue. B) apical tissue. C) connective tissue. D) muscle tissue. E) basal tissue. 2) 3) C haracteristics of epithelia include all of the follow ing A) avascularity. B) extracellular matrix. C) attachment. D) polarity. E) regeneration. 3) 4) The junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the A) tight junction. B) desmosome. C) hemidesmosome. D) gap junction. E) zonula adherens. 4) 5) Functions of epithelia include all of the follow ing, A) supporting muscle cells. B) providing physical protection. C) producing specialized secretions. D) absorption. E) controlling permeability. 5) 6) Epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have ________ at their free surface. A) junctional complexes B) microvilli C) mitochondria D) G olgi complexes E) cilia 6) 1 7) A type of intercellular junction that stops materials from crossing an epithelium between cells is termed a(n) A) gap junction. B) occluding junction. C) desmosome. D) intermediate junction. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 7) 8) Dead skin cells are shed in thin sheets because they are held together by "spots" of proteoglycan reinforced by intermediate filaments. Such strong intercellular connections are called A) tight junctions. B) intermediate junctions. C) desmosomes. D) junctional complexes. E) gap junctions. 8) 9) Epithelial cells exhibit modifications that adapt them for A) conduction. B) circulation. C) secretion. D) su pport. E) contraction. 9) 10) Epithelium is connected to underlying connecti ve tissue by A) a basal lamina. B) proteoglycan. C) interfacial canals. D) a reticular lamina. E) keratin. 10) 11) W hich tissue lines the small intestine and the stomach? A) simple squamous epithelium B) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium C) stratified squamous epithelium D) simple columnar epithelium E) simple cuboidal epithelium 11) 12) A layer of glycoproteins that prevents leakage of materials from connective tissues into epithelia is the A) integral proteins. B) lamina lucida. C) ground substance. D) matrix. E) lamina densa. 12) 2 13) Epithelia specialized for providing sensations of smell, taste, sight, equilibrium, and hearing are know n as A) psychoepithelia. B) neuroepithelia. C) multilaminar epithelia. D) neuropsychoepithelia. E) protective epithelia. 13) 14) G erminative cells A) make up most of the epithelial type of tissue. B) start in the superficial layers of epithelial tissue. C) cannot divide. D) cannot function in the repair of epithelial tissue. E) divide continually to produce new epithelial cells. 14) 15) In stratified epithelia adapted to resist mechanical forces, w hich of the follow ing types of cell - to - cell junctions are especially abundant? A) tight junctions B) hemidesmosomes C) basolateral junctions D) desmosomes E) gap junctions 15) 16) Close examination of a healthy organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain any blood vessels and one surface of the cells lines the cavity of the organ. This tissue is a type of A) muscle tissue. B) neural tissue. C) connective tissue. D) epithelium. E) fat tissue. 16) 17) Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely ________ tissue. A) epithelial B) neural C) connective D) muscle E) adipose 17) 18) Transitional epithelium is found A) lining the urinary bladder. B) lining the stomach. C) lining kidney tubules. D) lining the ducts that drain sweat glands. E) at the surface of the skin. 18) 3 19) The heart and blood vessels are lined by A) transitional epithelium. B) simple columnar epithelium. C) pseudostratified columnar epithelium. D) simple cuboidal epithelium. E) simple squamous epithelium. 19) 20) You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the A) urinary blad der. B) stomach. C) secretory portions of the pancreas. D) surface of the skin. E) trachea. 20) 21) Glands that secrete their product by the bursting of cells are A) apocrine glands. B) holocrine glands. C) su doriferous glands. D) merocrine glands. E) endocrine glands. 21) 22) Cells that are flat and thin are classified as A) columnar. B) blasts. C) transitional. D) squamous. E) cuboidal. 22) 23) Mesothelium is to the body cavities as endothelium is to the A) urinary blad der. B) heart and blood vessels. C) kidneys. D) mouth. E) large intestine. 23) 24) T he epithelia that line body cavities and blood vessels are classified as A) stratified squamous. B) transitional. C) simple cuboidal. D) simple squamous. E) stratified cuboidal. 24) 25) G lands that secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid are A) exocrine glands. B) endocrine glands. C) merocrine glands. D) interstitial glands. E) holocrine glands. 25) 4 26) T he two major types of cell layering in epithelia are A) simple and proper. B) squamous an d simple. C) cuboidal and columnar. D) simple and stratified. E) stratified and pseudostratified. 26) 27) The epithelium that forms air sacs in the lungs is A) simple squamous epithelium. B) simple cuboidal epithelium. C) transitional epithelium. D) stratified squamous epithelium. E) simple columnar epithelium. 27) 28) T he function of simple cuboidal epithelium is A) storage. B) absorption and secretion. C) su pport. D) phagocytosis. E) protection. 28) 29) T he study of cells shed from epithelial surfaces, often for diagnostic purposes, is termed A) exfoliative cytology. B) physiology. C) histology. D) embryology. E) anatomy. 29) 30) Secretions through a duct might provide ________, w hereas ductless secretions act as ________. A) enzymes; hormones B) odors; alarms C) transport media; physical protectors D) lubrication; lubricators E) superficial relief; interstitial fl uid 30) 31) T he Pap test for cervical cancer utilizes A) embryology. B) exfoliative cytology. C) anatomy. D) histology. E) physiology. 31) 32) Cells that are specialized for secretion A) are usually squamous. B) have a small nucleus. C) have a free surface that is flat. D) exhibit polarity. E) are found only in the digestive system. 32) 5 33) W atery perspiration is an example of a(n) ________ secretion. A) merocrine B) apocrine C) holocrine D) mucous E) serous 33) 34) W hich of the follow ing statements about simple epithelia is ? A) T hey afford little mechanical protection. B) T hey are characteristic of regions w here secretion or absorption occurs. C) They cover surfaces subjected to mechanical or chemical stress. D) T hey are avascular. E) T hey line internal compartments and passageways. 34) 35) T he pancreas produces ________ secretions. A) exocrine and endocrine B) mucous C) secretory D) serous E) merocrine 35) 36) U nicellular exocrine glands secrete A) milk. B) sweat. 36) C) sebum. D) insulin. E) mucus. 37) A gland formed by cells arranged in a blind pocket w ith a single unbranched duct would be called A) tubuloalveolar. B) sim ple alveolar. C) compound alveolar. D) simple tubular. E) compound tubular. 37) 38) W hich of the follow ing tissues are classified as "connecti ve tissue proper"? 1. areolar connective tissue 2. adipose tissue 3. fibrocartilage 4. dense irregular connective tissue A) 3 and 4 B) 1, 2, and 3 C) 1 and 3 D) 1, 2, and 4 38) E) 1 and 2 39) W hich cell produces the protein fibers in areolar connective tissue? A) squamous cell B) chondroblast C) chondrocyte D) fibroblast E) adipocyte 39) 40) Blood is w hich type of tissue? A) epithelial B) muscle C) mesenchy me D) nerve E) connective 40) 6 41) T he sticky material between cells of areolar connective tissue is called the A) cytoplasm. B) crista. C) ground substance. D) cytosol. E) gel matrix. 41) 42) Cells that store fat are called A) melanocytes. B) podocytes. C) adipocytes. D) cellulocytes. E) macrocytes. 42) 43) The framework or stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of ________ tissue. A) loose connective B) reticular connective C) adipose D) irregular dense connective E) regular dense connective 43) 44) T he dominant fiber type in dense connective tissue is A) actin. B) elastin. C) connectin. D) m yosin. E) collagen. 44) 45) Each of the follow ing is an example of dense connective tissue, A) aponeuroses. B) ligaments. C) tendons. D) elastic tissue. E) areolar tissue. 45) 46) The three categories of connective tissues are A) areolar, adipose, and dense tissues. B) connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and sup porting connective tissues. C) connective tissue proper, cartilages, and bone. D) epithelial, muscle, and neural tissues. E) glandular, exocrine, and endocrine. 46) 47) T wo classes of macrophages include A) microphages an d adipocytes. B) mast cells and basophils. C) fixed macrophages and free macrophages. D) neutrophils and eosinophils. E) mesenchymal cells and melanocytes. 47) 7 48) T wo types of microphages include A) neutrophils and eosinophils. B) mast cells and basophils. C) fixed macrophages and free macrophages. D) microphages an d adipocytes. E) mesenchymal cells and melanocytes. 48) 49) Tissues that provide strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions are A) dense irregular connective tissues. B) reticular tissues. C) ligaments. D) tendons. E) areolar tissue. 49) 50) W hat type of cell makes up almost half the volume of blood? A) phagocyte B) platelet C) monocyte D) leukocyte E) erythrocyte 50) 51) Wharton's jelly is a form of A) embryonic epithelium. B) ground substance. C) M arfan's syndrome. D) mucous connective tissue. E) collagen fibers. 51) 52) Which of the follow ing connective tissue cells produces collagen? A) mast cell B) macrophage C) adipocytes D) lymphocyte E) fibroblasts 52) 53) ________ attach skeletal muscles to bones, and ________ connect one bone to another. A) Tendons; ligaments B) A poneuroses; tendons C) Reticular tissues; tendons D) Ligaments; aponeuroses E) Ligaments; tendons 53) 54) T he three types of protein fibers in connective tissue are A) collagen, reticular, and elastic. B) polar, cellular, and permeable. C) loose, dense, and irregular. D) tendons, ligaments, and elastic ligaments. E) cartilage, bone, and collagen. 54) 8 55) W hite fat is found in ________, while brown fat is found in ________. A) adults; infants B) infants; adults C) w omen; men D) adolescents; adults E) men; women 55) 56) Cells that engulf bacteria or cell debris w ithin loose connective tissue are A) fibroblasts. B) mast cells. C) melanocytes. D) macrophages. E) adipocytes. 56) 57) Loose connective tissue functions in all of the follow ing ways, A) provide strong connections bet ween muscles and bones. B) storing triacylglycerols. C) supporting epithelia. D) anchoring blood vessels and nerves. E) filling spaces between organs. 57) 58) A ntibodies are produced by A) microphages. B) macrophages. C) plasmocytes. D) fibroblasts. E) mast cells. 58) 59) Cells that respon d to injury by dividing to assist in connective tissue repair are A) lymphocytes. B) mast cells. C) fibroblasts. D) plasmocytes. E) mesenchy mal stem cells. 59) 60) T he most common ty pe of cartilage is ________ cartilage. A) h yaline B) fibrous C) ligamentous D) osseous E) elastic 60) 61) Osseous tissue is also called A) fat. B) cartilage. 61) C) ligament. 62) Chondroitin sulfate is abundant in the matrix of A) adipose tissue. B) epithelial tissue. C) cartilage. D) areolar tissue. E) elastic connective tissue. D) bone. E) cellulite. 62) 9 63) Which type of connecti ve tissue is found in the trachea and between the ribs and sternum? A) elastic B) areolar C) dense regular D) h yaline cartilage E) fibrous 63) 64) A tissue with a gel matrix and cells inside lacunae is A) dense regular connective tissue. B) epithelium. C) cartilage. D) bone. E) areolar connecti ve tissue. 64) 65) Cartilage is separated from surroun ding tissues by a fibrous A) periosteu m. B) perichondrium. C) matrix. D) canaliculi. E) lacunae. 65) 66) C hondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to A) neural tissue. B) bone. C) epithelium. D) fat. E) blood. 66) 67) Damage to a joint cartilage is affecting w hich type of tissue? A) loose connective tissue B) dense connective tissue C) supporting connective tissue D) fluid connective tissue E) adipose tissue 67) 68) U nlike cartilage, bone A) has cells w ithin lacunae. B) has a matrix that contains collagen. C) is highly vascular. D) has an outer covering. E) is a connective tissue. 68) 69) Which of the follow ing membranes line cavities that communicate w ith the exterior of the body? A) pleural B) cutaneous C) synovial D) mucous E) serous 69) 10 70) T he reduction of friction between the parietal and visceral surfaces of an internal cavity is the function of A) cutaneous membranes. B) synovial membranes. C) the lamina propria. D) mucous membranes. E) serous membranes. 70) 71) T he serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity is the A) pleura. B) peritoneum. C) pericard ium. D) perichondrium. E) periosteu m. 71) 72) A dhesions between abdominopelvic organs occur w hen A) serous membranes are damaged. B) mucous membranes are damaged. C) synovial membranes are damaged. D) nerve cells are damaged. E) muscle is damaged. 72) 73) M icroscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the A) bony socket of the eye. B) superficial fascia bet ween skin and muscle. C) inner wall of a blood vessel. D) spleen. E) lungs. 73) 74) T he frame work of connective tissue between the skin and underlying muscles is called the A) deep fascia. B) subserous fascia. C) subcutaneous layer. D) dermis. E) superficial fascia. 74) 75) Which of these refers to the dense connective tissue that surrounds a muscle and blends w ith the tendon? A) subserous fascia B) deep fascia C) superficial fascia D) h ypodermis E) subcutaneous layer 75) 11 76) Tissue that is specialized for contraction is ________ tissue. A) epithelial B) muscle C) loose connective D) dense connective E) nerve 76) 77) M yosatellite cells are found in association w ith A) skeletal muscle. B) cardiac muscle. C) in voluntary muscle. D) smooth muscle. E) both smooth an d cardiac muscle. 77) 78) Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of A) smooth muscle tissue. B) nerve tissue. C) all types of muscle tissue. D) skeletal muscle tissue. E) cardiac muscle tissue. 78) 79) T he muscle tissue that shows no striations is ________ muscle. A) multinucleated B) skeletal C) cardiac D) voluntary E) smooth 79) 80) Tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is ________ tissue. A) osseous B) epithelial C) neural D) connective E) areolar 80) 81) A ll of the follow ing are true of neurons, that A) w hen mature, they lose the ability to divide. B) they conduct a nervous impulse. C) they are composed of a soma and axon. D) they are separated from one another by synapses. E) they are a very specialized form of connective tissue. 81) 82) D uring an inflammatory response to injury, w hich of the follow ing is the of the injury? A) cold, pale skin B) swelling C) increase in histamine D) increase in blood flow E) increase in basophils 12 likely in the region 82) 83) T he permanent replacement of normal tissue by fibrous tissue is called A) fibrosis. B) cystosis. C) necrosis. D) apoptosis. E) inflammation. 83) 84) Tissue changes w ith age include all of the following, A) less efficient tissue maintenance. B) more fragile connective tissues. C) decreased ability to repair tissue damage. D) proliferation of epidermal cells. E) thinner epithelia. 84) 85) T he stud y of tissues is called ________. 85) 86) A n epithelial cell can be divided into two functional regions. They are the ________ and the basal surface. 86) 87) T he epithelium that lines the body cavities is known as ________. 87) 88) T he lining of the heart and blood vessels is called ________. 88) 89) G land cells prod uce ________. 89) 90) ________ secretions are released by the gland cells into the interstitial space. (N ote: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer). 90) 91) T he process of lactation (milk production) depends on both merocrine and ________ secretion by mammary gland epithelial cells. 91) 92) T he flui d component of connective tissue is called ________. 92) 93) The combination of fibers and ground substance in supporting connective tissues is know n as ________. 93) 94) T he w atery fluid com ponent of blood is called ________. 94) 95) In areolar connective tissue, ________ cells release histamine. 95) 96) T he three major subdivisions of extracellular fluid found in the body are plasma, interstitial fluid, and ________. 96) 97) Interstitial fluid that enters a lymphatic vessel is termed ________. 97) 13 98) T he three kinds of formed elements in blood are erthrocytes, leukocytes, and ________. 98) 99) Lymphocytes can develop into cells that secrete defense proteins against disease. These cells are termed ________, w hile these proteins are called antibodies. 99) 100) Defense cells in blood are called w hite blood cells or ________. 100) 101) A ntiangiogenesis factor is a chemical produced by ________ that blocks the growth of blood vessels. 101) 102) A herniated disc is an injury of the pads of cartilage between the vertebrae in w hich the cartilage bulges from normal position. W hat type of cartilage is affected? 102) 103) G rowth of cartilage by accumulation of matrix around chondrocytes is called ________ growth. 103) 104) In ________ growth, cartilage grows w ider or thicker in diameter. 104) 105) Epithelia and connective tissues combine to form ________ that cover and protect other structures and tissues in the bod y. 105) 106) T he loose connective tissue component of a mucous membrane is called the ________. 106) 107) A ccumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity as a result of liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, or heart failure is know n as ________. 107) 108) T he function of ________ is to propagate electrical signals from one place to another. 108) 109) ________ support, protect, and nourish nerve cells. ( N ote: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer). 109) 110) T he body's first tissue response to any injury is ________. 110) 111) Explain w hy sunburned skin peels rather than being shed as a pow der. 112) W hat type of epithelium would you expect to find lining the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs? 113) Indicate an ad vantage for having simple rather than stratified epithelium lining the gas- exchange surfaces of the lungs. 114) A biology student accidentally loses the labels of two prepared slides she is stud ying. O ne is a slide of an intestine, the other of an esophagus. You volunteer to help her sort them out. H ow would you decide w hich slide is which? 14 115) A nalysis of a glandular secretion indicates that it contains some D N A, R N A , and membrane components such as phospholipids. W hat kind of secretion is this and w hy? 116) H arriet had liposuction several years ago, but has since gained back all the weight lost through the procedure. She does not understand her weight gain because adipocytes are incapable of dividing. Prov ide a plausible explanation. 117) Cartilage heals poorly and in many instances does not heal or recover at all after a severe injury. W hy not? 118) W hich is likely to heal faster, a bone injury or a cartilage injury? W hy? 119) W hy is cardiac muscle tissue that has been damaged by injury or disease incapable of regeneration? 120) Compare the three types of muscle tissue. List th...
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