ch03 - Exam N ame 1 T he smallest living unit w ithin the...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam N ame___________________________________ 1) T he smallest living unit w ithin the human body is A) an organ. B) a tissue. C) an organ system. D) the cell. E) a protein. 1) used to define the structure that separates the contents of a 2) Which of the following terms is human cell from its surrounding medium? A) cell membrane B) plasma membrane C) cell wall D) plasmalemma E) both a cell wall and a plasmalemma 2) 3) Functions of the plasmalemma include all of the follow ing, A) separation of the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid. B) thermal insulation. C) structural sup port. D) regulation of exchange of materials w ith the extracellular environment. E) sensitivity to chemical changes in the extracellular fluid. 3) 4) T he plasma membrane is composed of A) carbohy drate molecules. B) carbohydrates and lipids. C) carbohydrates and proteins. D) a bilayer of phospholipids. E) a bilayer of proteins. 4) 5) W hich of the follow ing is a function of membrane proteins? A) bin d to ligands B) regulate the passage of ions C) storage of cellular nutrients D) act as anchors or stabilizers for the cell membrane E) act as carrier molecules for various solutes 5) 6) T he tails of a phospholipid molecule are A) hydrophobic. B) h ydrophilic. C) facing the cytosol. D) composed of amino acids. E) interlocked to provide membrane strength. 6) 1 7) T he plasmalemma includes A) glycolipids. B) cholesterol. C) phospholipids. D) integral proteins. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 7) 8) What is the first part of the cell that is affected when the p H of extracellular fluid changes? A) nucleus B) the cytosol C) plasmalemma D) cytoskeleton E) nucleolus 8) 9) M embrane proteins perform w hich of the follow ing functions? A) recognition B) receptors C) anchoring D) enz ymes E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 9) 10) T he organelles and the watery component of the cell together is called A) extracellular fluid. B) protoplasm. C) cytosol. D) interstitial fluid. E) cytoplasm. 10) 11) T he watery component of the cytoplasm is called A) a colloidal gel. B) cytosol. C) extracellular fluid. D) protoplasm. E) interstitial fluid. 11) 12) Each of the follow ing is an example of a nonmembranous organelle, A) lysosomes. B) cilia. C) cytoskeleton. D) ribosomes. E) centrioles. 12) 13) Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the follow ing, A) microtubules. B) thick filaments. C) microsomes. D) intermediate filaments. E) microfilaments. 13) 2 14) Which of the follow ing about cytoplasm is ? A) semi - rigid texture B) includes cytosol C) the material that fills a cell D) includes cytoskeleton E) extracellular fluid contains more protein 14) 15) M any proteins in the cytosol are ________ that accelerate metabolic reactions. A) ions B) enz ymes C) lipids D) carbohy drates E) messengers 15) 16) M icrofilaments A) w ith myosin, produce cell movement. B) consist of the protein called actin. C) anchor the cytoskeleton to membrane proteins. D) control the consistency of cytoplasm. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 16) 17) M icrofilaments A) are found in the cytoplasm radiating away from the centrosome. B) are usually composed of myosin. C) interact w ith filaments composed of tubulin to produce muscle contractions. D) anchor the cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the cell membrane. E) are hollow, filamentous structures. 17) 18) Tubulin is a A) protein that forms the tubular portion of the cytosol. B) protein that assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules). C) carbohydrate that assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules). D) lipid that forms the ER. E) lipid that assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules). 18) 19) Compared to the extracellular fluid, cytosol contains A) a low er concentration of dissolved proteins. B) a higher concentration of potassium ions. C) almost no glycogen. D) almost no lipids. E) a higher concentration of amino acids. 19) 20) Which of the follow ing cytoskeleton components moves the chromosomes during cell division? A) basal bodies B) microtubules C) microfilaments D) intermediate filaments E) thick filaments 20) 3 21) Most of the A TP required to power cellular operations is produced in the A) cytoplasm. B) nucleus. C) endoplasmic reticulum. D) mitochondria. E) cilia. 21) 22) In the mitochondrion, folds are to cristae as the contained fluid is to A) cytosol. B) matrix. C) basal body. D) microvilli. E) actin. 22) 23) Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the A) smooth ER. B) ribosomes. C) rough ER. D) mitochondria. E) Golgi apparatus. 23) 24) W hich of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes w ith attached ribosomes? A) mitochondria B) rough endoplasmic reticulum C) Golgi apparatus D) smooth endoplasmic reticulu m E) nucleoli 24) 25) Renewal or modification of the cell membrane is a function of the A) ribosomes. B) mitochondria. C) microtubules. D) rough endoplasmic reticulum. E) Golgi apparatus. 25) 26) O rganelles that break dow n fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide are A) peroxisomes. B) toxisomes. C) lysosomes. D) nuclei. E) endocytic vesicles. 26) 27) When activated, lysosomes function in A) formation of new cell membranes. B) digestion of foreign material. C) synthesis of proteins. D) cell division. E) synthesis of lipids. 27) 4 28) W hich form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages new ly synthesized proteins? A) smooth endoplasmic reticulu m B) rough endoplasmic reticulum C) proteosomes reticulum D) ribosomal endoplasmic reticulum E) raised en doplasmic reticulum 28) 29) M icrotubules have w hich of the following functions? A) M olecular motors move along them. B) T hey move chromosomes during cell division. C) They form structural components of organelles. D) They provide a mechanism for changing the cell shape. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 29) 30) W hich of follow ing properties of microtubules is A) interact w ith dynein and kinesin B) made of actin C) made of myosin D) another term for microfilaments E) found only in the terminal web 30) ? 31) T he endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for A) lipid synthesis. B) modification of new proteins. C) drug and toxin neutralization. D) shipping molecules to the Golgi apparatus. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 31) 32) M atch the organelle (1- 4) w ith the correct description (5- 8): 1. mitochon drion 5. intracellular transport 2. centriole 6. liquid in cell 3. endoplasmic reticulum 7. manufactures cell energy 4. cytosol 8. separates chromosomes during mitosis A) 1 & 8, 2 & 5, 3 & 6, 4 & 7 B) 1 & 6, 2 & 8, 3 & 5, 4 & 7 C) 1 & 7, 2 & 8, 3 & 5, 4 & 6 D) 1 & 5, 2 & 6, 3 & 7, 4 & 8 E) 1 & 7, 2 & 6, 3 & 8, 4 & 5 32) 33) Tubulin is to microtubules as actin is to A) flagella. B) intermediate filaments. C) microfilaments. D) ribosomes. E) microvilli. 33) 5 34) M olecular motors that carry materials in opposite directions along microtubules are called A) actin and myosin. B) kinesin and myosin. C) dynein and kinesin. D) dynein and myosin. E) dynein an d actin. 34) 35) Peroxisomes A) are more abundant in cells w ith higher metabolic rates. B) absorb and break dow n fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process. C) contain enz ymes that break dow n hydrogen peroxide. D) are produced from other peroxisomes. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 35) 36) W hich of the following statements about the Golgi apparatus is A) sends transport vesicles to the RER B) prod uces lysosomes C) supplies new membrane components D) receives transport vesicles from the RER E) produces secretory vesicles 36) 37) Which of follow ing properties of the cytoskeleton is A) made of cytobones B) controls cell shape C) provides cell strength D) moves organelles E) supports organelles ? ? 37) 38) W hich organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein? A) mitochondria B) nucleus C) chromosome D) nucleolus E) proteasome 38) 39) If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to A) form the mitotic spindle. B) move. C) metabolize sugars. D) produce D N A . E) synthesize proteins. 39) one. Identify the 40) Each of the follow ing statements concerning mitochondria is true, exception. A) The cristae increase the inner surface area of the organelle. B) Respiratory enz ymes are attached to the surface of the cristae. C) T he mitochondria produce most of a cell's A TP. D) T he matrix contains metabolic enzymes involved in energy production. E) T he mitochondria require carbon dioxide and produce oxygen in the process of energy production. 40) 6 41) Each of the follow ing is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, A) storage and release of calcium ions. B) synthesis of steroid hormones. C) modification of protein. D) synthesis of triglycerides. E) detoxification of drugs. 41) 42) The follow ing is a list of the steps involved in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus. 1. M aterial moves from cisterna to cisterna by means of transfer vesicles. 2. Exocytosis. 3. Products from RER are packaged into transport vesicles. 4. Secretory vesicles are formed at the maturing face. 5. Vesicles arrive at the forming face. 6. Enzymes modify arri ving proteins and glycoproteins. 42) T he proper order for these is A) 5, 6, 1, 4, 2, 3. B) 1, 3, 6, 4, 2, 5. C) 2, 3, 5, 6, 1, 4. D) 3, 5, 6, 1, 4, 2. E) 4, 3, 1, 6, 5, 2. 43) Examination of a sample of gland ular cells reveals an extensive network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. W hich of the follow ing is the likeliest product of these cells? A) antibodies B) digestive enz ymes C) transport proteins D) protein hormones E) steroid hormones 43) 44) Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria w hile others have relatively few or none. This suggests that A) cells w ith large numbers of mitochondria have a low energy demand. B) cells w ith small numbers of mitochondria have a large A TP supply. C) cells w ith large numbers of mitochon dria are short - lived. D) cells w ith large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand. E) some cells are older than others. 44) 45) M icroscopic analysis of a tissue sample indicates that it contains abundant myosin filaments. This tissue is probably contains A) reproductive cells. B) liver cells. C) nerve cells. D) muscle cells. E) bone cells. 45) 7 - 46) W hich structure organizes the mitotic spindle during cell division? A) 3 B) 2 C) 5 D) 1 E) 6 46) 47) Synthesis of carbohydrates and lipids occurs in the structure labeled A) 6. B) 5. C) 8. D) 7. E) 4. 48) Which structure produces A TP for the cell? A) 1 B) 3 C) 5 E) 6 47) 48) D) 2 49) W hich organelle renews the cell membrane and modifies and packages proteins for secretion? A) 7 B) 5 C) 8 D) 4 E) 6 8 49) 50) T he structure labeled "1" permits the cell to A) produce more cells. B) trap bacteria. C) sw im in extracellular fluid. D) increase surface area for increased membrane transport. E) attach to neighboring cells. 50) 51) The components of ribosomes are formed w ithin A) mitochondria. B) G olgi com plexes. C) lysosomes. D) the endoplasmic reticulum. E) nucleoli. 51) 52) H istones are found in A) lysosomes. B) vesicles. C) endosomes. D) nucleosomes. E) proteasomes. 52) 53) Chromosomes consist of ________ and ________. A) D N A ; lipids B) R N A; carbohy drates C) D N A ; proteins D) R N A ; proteins E) w ater; R N A 53) 54) Most of a cell's D N A is located in its A) nucleolus. B) ribosomes. C) nucleus. D) lysosomes. E) Golgi apparatus. 54) 55) The control center for cellular operations is the A) Golgi apparatus. B) ribosome. C) endoplasmic reticulum. D) nucleus. E) mitochondria. 55) 56) The complex structures of D N A and protein found in the cell nucleus are A) nucleoplasm. B) nucleases. C) mitochondria. D) chromosomes. E) histones. 56) 9 57) The triplet codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the A) cytoplasm. B) gene. C) codon. D) polypeptide itself. E) anticodon. 57) 58) The functional units of D N A that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are A) codons. B) ribosomes. C) chromosomes. D) R N A. E) genes. 58) 59) A mature red blood cell lacks a nucleus; therefore, it A) can repair itself readily. B) w ill be a long- lived cell. C) can only divide once more. D) is malformed. E) cannot make new proteins and w ill be worn out w ithin a few months. 59) 60) mR N A is needed to synthesize ________ in the cytoplasm. A) salts B) carbohy drates C) lipids D) phospholipids E) proteins 60) 61) A s each codon arrives at the active site of a ribosome, it attracts another molecule containing the anticodon. T his molecule is called A) tR N A . B) rR N A. C) mR N A . D) RER. E) D N A . 61) 62) The process of protein formation directed by mR N A is called A) auscultation. B) replication. C) translation. D) transcription. E) mitosis. 62) 63) The process of forming mR N A is called A) ribolation. B) translation. C) replication. D) transcription. E) auscultation. 63) 10 64) Specific proteins are manufactured through the interaction of ________ and ________. A) multiple enzymes; three types of D N A B) multiple enzymes; three types of R N A C) multiple enzymes; two types of R N A D) multiple carbohy drates; three types of D N A E) multiple proteins; three types of D N A 65) The mR N A sequence that is complementary to the sequence A T C on D N A is A) A TC. B) A U G. C) T A G. D) A U C. 66) The anticodon for the triplet U C A is A) A G C. B) T GT. 64) 65) E) U A G. 66) C) A GT. D) A G U. E) TC A. 67) Before the mRN A transcribed from a gene can be used to translate into a protein, it must be A) edited to remove exons. B) edited to remove introns. C) coated w ith phospholipids for transport out of the nucleus. D) transported into the cytoplasm. E) edited to remove introns and transported into the cytoplasm. 67) 68) T hymine is replaced by w hich nitrogen base in R N A? A) ribose B) thymine is not replaced in R N A C) guanine D) uracil E) cytosine 68) 69) T he molecule that brings the proper amino acid into place at the ribosome for the elongation of a new protein is called A) mR N A . B) A TP. C) rR N A . D) N a- K. E) tR N A . 69) 70) Put the follo wing steps of protein synthesis in correct order of occurrence: 1. mR N A is produced in nucleus 2. ribosome moves along mR N A 3. D N A uncoils for transcription 4. polypeptide is prod uced 5. tR N A brings amino acids to ribosome 6. mR N A moves to ribosome A) 3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4 B) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2, 6 C) 3, 5, 1, 6, 2, 4 D) 2, 1, 5, 4, 3, 6 E) 2, 4, 6, 1, 3, 5 70) 71) T he unit of D N A that specifies a certain amino acid is called a ________, the same unit of mR N A is called a ________ w hich, during protein synthesis, is matched by the ________ of tR N A. A) codon, anticodon, ribosome B) nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate C) triplet, co- triplet, gene D) gene, gene, triplet, amino acid E) triplet, codon, anticodon 71) 11 72) T he duplication of D N A is called ________, the copying of D N A to mR N A is called ________, and the reading of the mR N A by the cell to make a protein is called ________ . A) reproduction, duplication, initiation B) replication, transcription, translation C) replication, translation, transcription D) mitosis, duplication, protein synthesis E) interphase, replication, active transport 72) 73) W hat would the complimentary D N A template strand be to produce the mR N A sequence of U G U - C A A? A) A C A - G U U B) A C A - G TT C) T C T - G TT D) U C U - G U U E) C G C - A T T 73) 74) A gene is a set of specific instructions that A) controls the process of mitosis. B) produces amino acids for proteins. C) directs carbohydrate synthesis. D) indicates the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule. E) copies D N A strands for mitosis. 74) 75) The D N A molecule is like a twisted ladder. W hat molecules form the "sides" of the D N A lad der? A) repeating molecules of acids and bases B) amino acids and protein C) carboh ydrates and lipids D) alternating molecules of sugar and phosphate groups E) nitrogen bases and sugar molecules 75) 76) A D N A nucleotide is composed of A) three amino acids. B) one nitrogen base, deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group. C) a codon and an anticodon. D) protein, lipid, and ribose sugar. E) four nitrogen bases. 76) 77) W hat would the complimentary (matching) mR N A and tR N A molecules be from a D N A molecule that has the follow ing triplets? coding strand: A T G - C A A tem plate strand: T A C - G TT A) mR N A: U A C - G U U, tR N A : A U G - C A A B) mR N A: T A C - G TT, tR N A : A U G - C A A C) mR N A : A U G - C A A , tR N A: T A C - G TT D) mR N A : A U G - C A A , tR N A: U A C - G U U E) mR N A : A T G - C A A , tR N A: T A C - G TT 77) 12 78) The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of A) filtration. B) facilitated transport. C) osmosis. D) diffusion. E) active transport. 78) 79) D iffusion of a substance across the cell membrane is influenced by all of the follow ing, A) concentration gradient. B) the presence of the membrane channels. C) the charge on the ion. D) lipid solubility. E) hydrolysis of A TP. 79) 80) W ater molecules and small ions enter a cell through A) channels formed by integral proteins. B) defects in the lipid layer of the membrane. C) peripheral proteins. D) lipid channels. E) peripheral carbohydrates. 80) 81) A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called A) merotonic. B) hypotonic. C) hypertonic. D) homotonic. E) isotonic. 81) 82) If a red blood cell (RBC) is placed in a 0.5% salt solution, w hich of the follow ing would occur? 1. w ater w ill move out of the RBC 2. RBC w ill hemoly ze 3. RBC w ill crenate 4. water w ill enter the RBC A) 2 and 3 only B) 1 and 3 only C) 2 and 4 only D) 1 and 2 only E) 3 and 4 only 82) 83) Which statement best describes osmosis? A) diffusion of water from a greater to a lesser water concentration across a selectively permeable membrane B) active transport of water across the cell membrane C) diffusion of water from a greater to a lesser water concentration D) movement of water into a solute E) ran dom movement of water due to kinetic energy 83) 13 84) Osmotic pressure A) forces water to move toward the higher solute concentration. B) forces w ater to move across a semipermeable membrane. C) increases as solute concentration increases. D) can be opposed by hydrostatic pressure. E) A ll the answers are correct. 84) 85) "Spikes" form on a blood cell w hen it is placed in a(n) ________ solution. A) hypotonic B) homotonic C) merotonic D) hypertonic E) isotonic 85) 86) H emolysis may occur w hen a blood cell is placed into A) hypotonic solution. B) homotonic solution. C) merotonic solution. D) isotonic solution. E) hypertonic solution. 86) 87) T he skin sw ells and puckers during a long bath. This suggests that bath water is a(n) ________ fluid. A) toxic B) hypertonic C) hypotonic D) isotonic E) diffusion 87) 88) Red blood cell shrinkage is to ________ as cell bursting is to ________. A) crenation; hemolysis B) hypotonic; isotonic C) lysis; crenation D) isotonic; hypertonic E) isotonic; hypotonic 88) 89) If the amount of chloride ion in blood plasma increases, w hich of the follow ing would occur? A) T he blood hydrostatic pressure w ill increase. B) T he blood osmotic pressure w ill decrease. C) The blood hydrostatic pressure w ill decrease. D) T he blood osmotic pressure w ill stay the same. E) T he blood osmotic pressure w ill increase. 89) 90) If the concentration of sodium chloride in the interstitial fluid surrounding cells decreases and the concentration of other solutes remains constant, A) the cells will shrink. B) the fluid outside of the cells w ill become isotonic. C) the cells w ill swell. D) the cells will not change. E) the fluid outside of the cells w ill become hypertonic. 90) 14 91) T here is a direct correlation between the potency of a general anestheti...
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